List of doctors and surgeons
This article details some individual Doctors and Surgeons. For general information and research guidance, see the main Doctor article.
A further list of surgeons, who found fame as botanists and naturalists can be found in that article.
- Gabriel Broughton was, perhaps, the most influential doctor in the history of British India. In the year 1636 the daughter of Mughal Emperor, Shah Jehan, was badly burnt following the upset of an oil lamp. The Emperor sent for the English ship's surgeon, Gabriel Broughton, who was able to assist her. In a later incident he treated another lady of the Emperor's harem. In reward for his services he asked that the East India Company be given a charter to trade in Bengal.
- William Hamilton (Wikipedia), a surgeon, died 1717. In gratitude for the success of the medical treatment given to him by Hamilton, the Mughal Emperor, Furrukhsiyar, made generous gifts to the English surgeon. He also allowed the East India Company to purchase about 30 villages which enabled fortification of their position around Calcutta and greatly strengthened their trading presence in Bengal. Hamilton's profession, therefore, played a significant role in establishing the early influence of the East India Company. Photo of memorial to Surgeon William Hamilton on Fibis database
- The Diaries of Three Surgeons of Patna, 1763 edited by W K Firminger 1909. The diaries of William Anderson, Peter Campbell and William Fullarton (Fullerton) about the massacre at Patna in 1763. William Anderson died there. His diary is also published in the Calcutta Review, Volume 79 1884 which is available online on the Digital Library of India website, computer page 349.(Search for Calcutta Review, Vol 79). Refer Online books-Digital Library of India for more details about this site. William Fullerton was appointed Surgeon to the Calcutta General Hospital in 1744
- John Farquhar Assistant Surgeon c 1794 was “better known for the large fortune which he acquired from the various speculations into which he entered", brief details are in this link Archive.org
- Dr James Gerard, Surgeon accompanied the author of the following book on his journey: Travels into Bokhara; being the account of a journey from India to Cabool, Tartary, and Persia; also, Narrative of a voyage on the Indus, from the sea to Lahore, with presents from the king of Great Britain; performed under the orders of the supreme government of India, in the years 1831, 1832, and 1833 by Lieutenant Alexander Burnes 1834 Volume I, Volume II, Volume III Archive.org
- James Atkinson (Wikipedia) 1780-1852, who was appoined Assistant Surgeon 1802. He was a Persian scholar and artist. Among his many books is his account of the 1st Afghan War
- The Expedition Into Affghanistan: Notes and Sketches Descriptive of the Country, Contained in a Personal Narrative During the Campaign of 1839 & 1840, Up to the Surrender of Dost Mahomed Khan by James Atkinson, Superintending Surgeon of the Army of the Indus, Bengal Establishment 1842 Google Books.
- The Sketches were published as a separate book Sketches in Afghaunistan, 1842 consisting of 26 lithographs. NYPL Digital Gallery. The British Library Online Gallery also contains many works including a watercolour of plate 7 The opening into the narrow Pass above the Siri Bolan ( Search for other images)
- William Lewis M'Gregor (or McGregor) 1801-1853. He gained his M.D. at Edinburgh 1825. He was appointed Assistant Surgeon 15 March 1826 and Surgeon 13 January 1842. He took part in the 1st Sikh War as surgeon of the 1st Bengal (European) Fusiliers, also known as the 1st European Light Infantry. He had also resided, for a time, at Lahore, as physician to Runjeet Singh, the Sikh leader (who died in 1839). M'Gregor wrote The History of the Sikhs Volume I and The History of the Sikhs containing an Account of the War between the Sikhs and the British in 1845-46 Volume II both published in 1846 Google Books. He describes how at the end of 1836 he performed galvanism, a type of electric shock therapy on the ailing Runjeet Singh, page 274 of Volume 1. Allen’s Indian Mail, page 673 reported M'Gregor’s death on 11 September 1853.
- Stray Leaves from the Diary of an Indian Officer by Robert Bakewell Cumberland 1865 Google Books. The author was an Assistant Surgeon in the Bengal Medical Service from 1828, became a Surgeon 1 February 1845, and retired 20 January 1854.
- The ‘Apostle of Mesmerism in India’ Dr James Esdaile. Appointed 1831, returned to England in 1851. British Library-Untold Lives 25 January 2013.
- John M'Cosh, generally written McCosh, joined the Bengal Medical Service in 1831 and retired in 1856. In 1833 he was travelling to Australia on sick leave when he was shipwrecked. He spent two years in Assam and served in the 2nd Sikh War and the 2nd Burma War, where he was a pioneer photographer. For further details see Photographer-Individuals. He also wrote poetry.
- His books and articles include
- Narrative of the wreck of the lady Munro, on the desolate island of Amsterdam, October, 1833 by J M'Cosh, Assistant Surgeon Hon. East India Company, Bengal Service 1835 Google Books
- Topography of Assam by John M'Cosh 1837. Google Books
- Medical Advice to the Indian Stranger by John M'Cosh M.D. (1841). Google Books
- "On an Overland Route Between Calcutta and China" by J McCosh MD, late Bengal Medical Staff Colburn’s United Service Magazine and Naval and Military Journal 1861 Part 2 page 50
- John Login worked for the Bengal Medical Service from 1832 until the young Duleep Singh last Maharajah of the Sikh Empire was placed under his care in 1849. Sir John remained his guardian until 1858. Sir John Login and Duleep Singh by Lady Login. With an introduction by G. B. Malleson 1890 Archive.org.
- Obituary of Surgeon Major Allan Webb, died 15 September 1863, age 55, entered the Bengal Medical Service in 1835. A second obituary. Obituary from the British Medical Journal. For many years from 1842, in addition to his other positions, he was surgeon to the Lower Orphan School, Calcutta, probably until his retirement, or close to it.
- Autobiography of an Indian Army Surgeon: Or, Leaves Turned Down from a Journal by Wilmington Walford M.D. (published 1854) Google Books.
- Frederic John Mouat 1816-1897, Bengal Surgeon, was a leading figure in the field of education and prison reform, ca 1840-1870 Wikipedia His Obituary was published in the British Medical Journal.
- Observations on the nosological arrangement of the Bengal medical returns by Frederic John Mouat Assistant Surgeon, Bengal Army, Professor of Materia Medica and Medical Jurisprudence in the Bengal Medical College 1845 Google Books
- Report on jails visited and inspected in Bengal, Behar and Arracan by Frederic John Mouat Inspector of Jails, Lower Provinces 1856 Google Books
- Observations on the nosological arrangement of the Bengal medical returns by Frederic John Mouat Assistant Surgeon, Bengal Army, Professor of Materia Medica and Medical Jurisprudence in the Bengal Medical College 1845 Google Books
- Recollections of My Life by Surgeon-General Sir Joseph Fayrer 1900 Archive.org. Largely devoted to his life in India. He joined the Bengal Medical Service in 1850. He was at Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny page 130 He returned to England in 1872, but accompanied the Prince of Wales on his visit to India in 1875.
- Memories of Seven Campaigns: a record of thirty-five years' service in the Indian Medical Department in India, China, Egypt, and the Sudan by James Howard Thornton, Deputy Surgeon General, Indian Medical Service, late Principal Medical Officer Punjab Frontier Force. 1895 Archive.org. The author was in the Bengal Medical Service 1856-1891.
- Obituary of Assistant-Surgeon W. J. Thomson, Civil Surgeon of Gurgaon (near Delhi), who died 1863. He had “an early death” and appears to have joined the Bengal Medical Service after 1858.
- Dr. William Brooke O'Shaughnessy (1809-1889), modernised treatment for cholera, introduced cannabis to Western medicine, laid first telegraph system in Asia.
- Memoir of Surgeon-Major Sir W. O'Shaughnessy Brooke...etc by M Adams (1889) Archive.org
- Recollections of the Kabul campaign 1879 & 1880 by Joshua Duke, Bengal Medical Service 1883 Archive.org. He initially had duties with the Staff and then took over medical charge of the 5th Goorkhas
- A medico-topographical account of Jeypore: based on the experience of twenty years' service as Residency Surgeon and thirteen as Superintendent of Dispensaries at Jeypore, Rajputana [Jaipur] by Brigade-Surgeon Lieut.-Colonel Thomas Holbein Hendley Bengal Medical Department 1895 Archive.org
- Captain J. R. Roberts, I. M. S., Agency Surgeon at Gilgit took many of the photographs in the book Making of a frontier: five years' experiences and adventures in Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar, Chitral & the eastern Hindu-Kush by Algernon Durand 1900 Archive.org, and is mentioned page xi of the Preface.
- Colly Lyon Lucas joined the EIC’s service 9 January 1764. "A Lucas Family: From Ireland to India" by David Atkinson FIBIS Journal Number 26 Autumn 2011, pages 11-25
- Diseases of India by Sir James Annesley, 3rd edition. Google books. Commences with details of his career as a Military Surgeon in the Madras Presidency from 1800 until he retired in 1838, after five years on the Medical Board.
- William Gilchrist was appointed an Assistant Surgeon 17 January 1830, and c early 1840s was medically in charge of the animals at the Public Cattle Depot, Hoonsoor
- A practical memoir on the history and treatment of the diseases of the Elephant… by W Gilchrist, Assistant Surgeon, P C D, Hoonsoor 1841 Google Books
- A practical memoir on the history and treatment of the diseases of the Camel … by W Gilchrist, Assistant Surgeon, Pub. Catt. Depot, Hoonsoor 1843 Google Books
- Edward Green Balfour (Wikipedia), appointed Assistant Surgeon in the Madras Medical Service and sailed for India 1834. Retired 1876 as Surgeon General of Madras Presidency. Pages from History: Edward the green Balfour Madras Musings March 16-31 2010."Edward Green Balfour (1813–1889) and his contributions to Indian agriculture and forestry" by Anantanarayanan Raman. Current Science, Volume 106, No. 11, 10 June 2014.
- Duncan McPherson (MacPherson) became an Assistant Surgeon in 1836. He was the author of Two Years in China: Narrative of the Chinese Expedition, from its formation in April, 1840, till April, 1842 : with an appendix, containing the most important of the general orders & despatches published during the above period by Duncan McPherson, MD, Madras Army, Attached to the Service of His Highness the Nizam and lately with the 37th Grenadier Regiment in China. 1842 Google Books
- George Edward Aldred was appointed an Assistant Surgeon in the Madras Medical Service on the 20th of April 1847. This page from Asplin Military History shows the appointment procedures. He was court martialled for unbecoming conduct in July 1848 and dismissed, as this item from Allen’s Indian Mail 1848 shows, but subsequently reinstated.
- William Robert Cornish (Wikipedia). Appointed Assistant Surgeon Madras 1854. Retired in 1885 as head of the Madras Presidency Medical Services
- Ronald Ross (Wikipedia). Madras Medical Service 1881-1899. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria, researched while he was in India.
- Memoirs, with a Full Account of the Great Malaria Problem and its Solution by Ronald Ross 1923 Archive.org. He recounts receiving very little official support for his research.
- Andrew Jukes from Encyclopedia Iranica. Appointed Assistant Surgeon 1798.
- James Burnes was awarded in 1837 the civil decoration of the Guelphic Order for his services in India. He wrote A Narrative of a Visit to the Court of Sinde: a sketch of the history of Cutch, from its first connexion with the British government in India till the conclusion of the treaty of 1819; and some remarks on the medical topography of Bhooj by James Burnes, Surgeon to the Residency at Bhooj 1829 Reprinted 1831 (1829 edition) Google Books
- The third edition was Narrative of a Visit to the Court of Sinde at Hyderabad on the Indus: With a Sketch of the History of Cutch, and an Appendix by James Burnes, Bombay Army 1939 Google Books. Additional contents compared with the 2nd edition, but without the "medical topography of Bhooj"
- Narrative of the Campaign of the Indus in Sind and Kaubool in 1838-9 by Richard Hartley Kennedy M.D. Chief of the Medical Staff of the Bombay Division of the Army of the Indus. 1840 Volume 1 Volume 2
- Henry Vandyke Carter 1831-1897 (Wikipedia) provided the drawings for the famous medical text book Gray’s Anatomy. He later joined the Bombay Medical Service where he had a distinguished research career and was Principal of the Grant Medical College Bombay.
- Obituary in the British Medical Journal dated 15 May 1897
- Details of his youth and final years in Scarborough
- “Happy Birthday, Gray’s Anatomy” by Adrian E Flatt. 2009. Contains some biographical details.
- Dr Vandyke Carter, Doctor from History of Leprosy, an initiative of the International Leprosy Association
- ”Causation Controversies in India: the Leprosy Career of Henry Vandyke Carter” Chapter 2, page 55 (online page 67) from Leprosy in the Bombay Presidency 1840-1897 Perceptions and Approaches to its Control . A PhD thesis in History by Shubhada S Pandya 2001
- List of Carter Papers in the Wellcome Institute, with a Biographical Note
- John Henry Sylvester was appointed to the Bombay Medical Service in 1853. His book Recollections of the campaign in Malwa and Central India: under Major General Sir Hugh Rose by Assistant Surgeon John Henry Sylvester 1860 Google Books is about the campaign during the Indian Mutiny. C 1875 he wrote a manuscript which was published in 1971 by Macmillan, London under the title Cavalry surgeon : the recollections of Deputy Surgeon-General John Henry Sylvester, Bombay Army. Available at the British Library Review of the book (Scroll to bottom) html version, original pdf which says "It’s description of ruthless fighting on the North-west frontier has no equal but Winston Churchhill’s Malakand Field Force". This link, scroll down, gives details of his service: He served in the Bombay Medical Service from 1853-1875. He saw service during the Persian campaign 1856-1857, Indian Mutiny, the Central India campaign, action at Mundesur, Jhansi, the battles of the Betwa and Kunch and the capture of Kalpi and Gwalior. In 1863 he was present on the North West Frontier and then saw action at Buner pass and the burning of Ambela
- George Edward Seward joined the Bombay Medical Service in 1855. His service included that of Medical Officer and Cantonment Magistrate at Baroda, where he was instrumental in discovering poison in the cup given through the Gaekwar’s agents to Sir Robert Phayre in 1874, later giving evidence at the famous Baroda trial. 
- Obituary of R Markham Carter 1875-1961 from the British Medical Journal, with an additional tribute (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc) A large part of his career was in Bombay. He was renowned for the stand he took in respect of the appalling conditions suffered by casualties at Basra in Mesopotamia during the First World War.
- "Wounded in Mesopotamia" from an official report by Major R. Markham Carter
- Housing Shortages in Bombay in the 1860s 27 May 2014 British Library untold lives blog . Includes mention of Surgeon R Haines, and Assistant Surgeon C Joynt, Surgeon to the Jail and House of Correction in Bombay
Indian Medical Service
- Photograph of Surgeon-Major JW Rodgers, Indian Medical Service flickr.com. Rodgers joined the 2nd Sikhs as medical officer in 1886. He retired in 1911 with rank of Lt. Colonel.
- Besieged in Kut, and after by Major Charles Harrison Barber I M S 1918 Archive.org
- Imperial War Museums catalogue entry: Private Papers of Colonel W C Spackman: Ts memoir (331pp) covering his service as Regimental Medical Officer to the 48th Pioneers, 6th Indian Division in Mesopotamia, 1914 - 1915, at Kut during the siege, December 1915 - April 1916, and as a prisoner of war in Anatolia, 1916 – 1918. An edited version has been published: Captured at Kut, Prisoner of the Turks: The Great War Diaries of Colonel William Spackman, edited by Colonel R.A. Spackman.
- Captain Kalyan Kumar Mukherji, I M S arrived in Mesopotamia in 1915. After the fall of Kut he was sent to a prisoner-of-war camp at Ras al-‘Ain, Syria where he died in 1917. He was posthumously awarded the Military Cross. His letters to his family were incorporated into a book, in Bengali, available online on the Digital Library of India website, catalogued as Kalyan-Pradip by Mokshada Debi (two book files) Some excerpts have been translated into English by Amitav Ghosh. Scroll down to the entry The ‘Home and the World’ in Iraq 1915-17: Part 1 to commence. For the final posts, scroll down to the bottom three posts. Written July- August 2012 amitavghosh.com (retrieved 10 May 2014).
- Captain Gopal Gangadhar Limaye received a temporary commission in the Indian Medical Service in early 1918 . He was with the 87th Punjabis 1918-1921. He saw action in Mesopotamia and was involved in operations against the Kurdistanis in 1919 and in quelling the Arab Rebellion in 1920. He wrote War Memoirs , in Marathi , in 1939. Some excerpts in English may be found in “Yet another Indian First World War memoir found!” November 14, 2012 amitavghosh.com. (retrieved 10 May 2014). This book may be viewed online on the Digital Library of India website, where the Introduction is in English. (The author is catalogued as Limaye Go Gan')
- I’d Live it Again by Lieut.-Col Eugene John O’Meara, Indian Medical Service (rtd) 1935 is available to read online on the Digital Library of India website. The author is catalogued as Meara. An autobiography. He joined the IMS in 1898
- Captain Robert Douglas Scriven of the Indian Medical Service was awarded the Military Cross for his escape in 1942 from a Japanese P.O.W. camp, following the fall of Hong Kong in December 1941 His story is told in this obituary of Colonel Tony Hewitt.
- Satyen Basu, a doctor from Calcutta, joined the Indian Medical Service early in the Second World War and served with the Allied forces in Iraq, Syria and North Africa. His unit surrendered near Tobruk in 1942 and he was transported to a POW camp in southern Italy, not far from Naples. His story is told in "An Indian POW in Italy" (scroll to the bottom of the page for part 1). amitavghosh.com (retrieved 2 May 2014). A Doctor in the Army by Satyen Basu (Calcutta 1960) is available at the British Library
Royal Army Medical Corps and the earlier British Army Medical Services
- Sir James McGrigor, later Director-General of the Army Medical Department, spent a short time in Bombay and Ceylon with the 88th Regiment of Foot from mid 1799. Chapter VI of his autobiography
- Recollections of thirty-nine years in the Army : Gwalior and the Battle of Maharajpore, 1843, the gold coast of Africa, 1847-48, the Indian Mutiny, 1857-58, the expedition to China, 1860-61, the siege of Paris, 1870-71, etc. by Sir Charles Alexander Gordon Surgeon- General 1898 Archive.org
- Page 85 The author transferred into the 10th Regiment of Foot by purchase: “at this date  regimental appointments in India had their market value”
- Andrew Leith Adams (Wikipedia) travelled to India in 1849 with the 64th Regiment of Foot and remained for seven years. Wanderings of a naturalist in India: the western Himalayas, and Cashmere by Andrew Leith Adams MD (1867) Google Books.
- Kohat, Kuram, and Khost; Or, Experiences and Adventures in the Late Afghan War by Richard Gillham-Thomsett, Surgeon, Army Medical Department 1884 Archive.org. He was initially appointed to the 20A Battery of Artillery.
- Surgeon-Major Alexander Francis Preston: The REAL Dr Watson: The Victorian army medic who was the inspiration for Sherlock's trusty sidekick by Annabel Venning 2 February 2012 www.dailymail.co.uk. He was medical officer with the 66th Regiment of Foot and was wounded in the Battle of Maiwand, an action in the 2nd Afghan War. Photograph, with details from The Wardrobe
- “War in Burma-the Award of the Victoria Cross to Ferdinand Simeon Le Quesne" (pdf) by PH Starling from Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps March 2009, now an archived page. The award was for action in Burma 4 May 1889 when he was a Surgeon Captain with the 2nd Norfolk Regiment. He would have been part of the British Army Medical Services at this time, not the Indian Medical Service. He had later (broken) service in Burma and India until 1909.
- Field Force to Lhasa 1903-1904. Fifty letters home by Captain Cecil Mainprise of the Royal Army Medical Corps who took part in the Tibet Expedition. (Cached URL) His obituary in the British Medical Journal 3 March 1951 indicates he had further service in India, including the 3rd Afghan War of 1919.
- Brigadier Peter Lassen 23 Apr 2004 The Telegraph. Born 1908, he joined the RAMC in 1934. Initially posted to a military hospital in Rawalpindi, he saw action on the North West Frontier in the Mohmand Campaign of 1935 and in the Khaisora operation of 1936-37. He left India in 1940.
- Reminiscences of Professor R H Girdwood, Royal Army Medical Corps, WW2 scotsatwar.org.uk
- '"A Woman Doctor" by Dr. Ivy Oates, nee Nicholls. She qualified in July 1941, joined the Army in September 1942 and was subsequently posted to India Part Three, Part Four, Part Five BBC’s WW2 People’s War (Part One Part Two)
- Theodore Ludvig Frederick Folly was a Danish surgeon who worked in the Danish colony of Tranquebar “The Medical Skills of the Malabar Doctors in Tranquebar, India, as Recorded by Surgeon T L F Folly, 1798” by Niklas Thode Jensen, PhD student Med Hist. 2005 October 1; 49(4): 489–515.
- Sir Paul Jodrell was physician to the Nawab of Arcot. Scandal and ruin in 18th century Madras British Library Untold Lives blog, 12 July 2013.
- Dr John Martin Honigberger 1795-1865 was physician to the court of Lahore for periods from 1829 to 1849 and known to his Sikh contemporaries as Martin Sahib. The Sikh Encyclopedia Thirty-five years in the East: Adventures, discoveries, experiments, and historical sketches, relating to the Punjab and Cashmere; in connection with medicine, botany, pharmacy, etc. Together with an original materia medica; and a medical vocabulary, in four European and five Eastern languages by John Martin Honigberger, late Physician to the Court of Lahore 1852 Google Books. The article "From the Land of Dracula to an English Rectory, vai the Sikh Court and India's Forests" by Peter Hubert FIBIS Journal Number 26, Autumn 2011, pages 2-10.
- John Williamson Palmer 1825-1906 was an American doctor, appointed, in Hong Kong, surgeon on the EIC war steamer Phlegethon (Bengal Marine). The previous surgeon, returning from a dinner party had slipped overboard and was drowned. The Phlegethon took part in the 2nd Burma War in 1852-1853 and The golden Dagon, or, Up and down the Irrawaddi: being passages of adventure in the Burman Empire by John Williamson Palmer 1856 Google Books details his experiences. He also wrote "The Chorus of the Palanquin Bearers", a description of his transit through Cossitollah Street, Calcutta.  Biographical details 
- A Glimpse of India being a collection of extracts from the letters Dr. Clara A. Swain, first medical missionary to India of the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America 1909 Archive.org and Clara A. Swain, M.D.: first medical missionary to the women of the Orient by Mrs. Robert Hoskins. 1912 Archive.org
- Pennell of the Afghan frontier; the life of Theodore Leighton Pennell, M.D., B. SC., F.R.C.S. Kaisar-i-Hind medal for public service in India by Alice Maud Pennell 1914. Dr Pennell of the Bannu Medical Mission died at the age of 44.
- Jungle Days being the experiences of an American Woman Doctor in India by Arley Munson, M.D. 1913 Archive.org. The author joined c late 1900s the Wesleyan Mission at Medak, sixty miles from Hyderabad.
- World War II in British India by Hermann M. Selzer, M. D. Born a Polish Jew, he studied medicine in Germany and Italy and worked with his wife, as doctors in Lahore from the late 1930s. In December 1940, the family was arrested and taken as enemy aliens to first Purandhar and then Satara internment camps in Southern India until August 1946, when they were released and returned to Lahore. gaebler.info
- Laura and Charles Hope were Baptist medical missionaries from Australia, for most of the period 1893 to 1934, as described in the Australian Dictionary of Biography.
- Roll of the Indian Medical Service 1615-1930 by D.G. Crawford
- Dublin University Magazine Volume 29, 1847, page 546 Google Books
- Topography of Assam by John M'Cosh 1837, page vi
- Asiatic Journal Volume 23, 1837, page 72 of the section “Asiatic Intelligence”
- De White Seward Rootsweb India Mailing List, 13 Apr 2011. Retrieved on 3 May 2014.
- London Gazette Tuesday 18 August 1942
- Obituary of Colonel Tony Hewitt www.telegraph.co.uk 17 Aug 2004
- The Autobiography and Services of Sir James McGrigor, bart., late Director-General of the Army Medical Department, with an appendix of notes and original correspondence, Chapter VI, page 92 1861 Google Books
- reprinted in Oliver Wendell Holmes, poet, littérateur, scientist, page 330 by William Sloane Kennedy 1883, Archive.org, originally from Atlantic Monthly, January 1858
- "Words for the hour": a new anthology of American Civil War poetry, edited by Faith Barrett, Cristanne Miller Google Books