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The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey), from 17 February 1915 to 9 January 1916.[1]

Also see

War Diaries

Included in the many records held at the National Archives Kew is the series WO 95 - War Office: First World War and Army of Occupation War Diaries.

Some War Diaries, many of which are handwritten, have been digitised and are available (on a pay basis) online from the following sources: from the National Archives through the Discovery catalogue[2] and through Ancestry which contains the database "UK, WWI War Diaries (Gallipoli and Dardanelles), 1914-1916" (selected, and at times, part war diaries only)[3][4] (search hints[5]) (in addition to a Western Front database). The Ancestry database also contain War Diaries for some Indian, Australian and New Zealand Army regiments.
Transcribed (the handwriting has been deciphered for you!) (series title) Gallipoli Diaries, edited by Martin Gillott. publisher Great War Diaries, for British and Infantry Indian Army regiments, are available through[6], in Kindle editions which have a Search facility (anyone with Kindle Unlimited can read them for free). (Download of a free Kindle App is available onto a PC, Mac or tablet - you don't need Kindle). The transcribed Indian Army Gallipoli Diaries are for Headquarters 29th Indian Infantry Brigade 1915 (includes Gurkhas and 14th King George’s Own Ferozepore Sikhs) and Gurkhas at Gallipoli 1915 (a combined edition 1/4th Gurkha Rifles 1915, 1/5th Gurkha Rifles (Frontier Force) 1915, 1/6th Gurkha Rifles 1915, 2/10th Bn Gurkha Rifles 1915, the latter four Diaries also available separately.

The Australian War Memorial website[7] contains Australian and New Zealand Army War diaries (available for free)

The British Library catalogue entry IOR/L/MIL/17/5/3951-3953 refers to "War diary, Army Headquarters India, Indian Expeditionary Force 'G' [Mediterranean]. GSI, 1915. 3 vols". There are further catalogue entries with reference to Indian Expeditionary Force G in IOR/L/MIL/17/5/3893 onwards "War diary, Army Headquarters India, Indian Expeditionary Force 'E'/'E' & 'G'/Egypt. GSI, 1914-19. 45 vol", with the note "13-38 = 'E' & 'G'". These records are printed volumes, not available online.

Regimental and Corps Histories

  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery : the Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914-18 by Sir Martin Farndale 1988. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01008145796

Aviation articles

  • There is a series of articles in Over the Front, Journal of the League of WWI Aviation Historians,[8] titled "Over The Wine Dark Sea, Aerial Aspects of the Dardanelles/Gallipoli Campaign". Initial three articles are in Volume 9, Number 1, 2, 3 (1994) by R D Layman, Ian Burns and Richard T Whistler. Part 2 is titled "Operations of HMS Ben-My-Chree, June 1915 - January 1916"; Part 3 "Turco-German Aviation"; Part 4: "The German Wasserfliegerabteilung" by Richard T. Whistler Volume 11, Number 2 (1996); Part 5, "The Defense of the Bosphorus and the Fokker Staffel" by Richard T. Whistler Volume 11, Number 3 (1996). (For library sources, see Royal Air Force - External links, including Imperial War Museums).
  • 'Kite Balloons at Sea: Gallipoli and Salonika 1915-16" by Ian Burns Cross and Cockade International Journal[9] (Vol. 46, Number 1) Spring 2015. 1st page of article
  • Further articles in Cross and Cockade International Journal are mentioned in the Great War Forum topic, "Avro ? at Imbros"[10], or search the Journal Index

External links

Sketches online

  • Crusading at Anzac A. D. 1915 pictured and described by Signaller Ellis Silas. A Soldier Artist serving with the Australian Imperial Forces. Published 1916. National Library of Australia. Note: it is possible to rotate the images, by the icon in the lower RHS of the book reader.
An artist at The Landing—Signaller Silas, with links to his biography, sketches and diary extracts (the latter, 2 webpages).
  • Sketches by then Captain Leslie Gore from the State Library of NSW. Sketches at Gallipoli, 1915, catalogue reference PXE 702. There are some additional sketches of Gallipoli at the beginning of the series [World War I sketches], catalogue reference PXE 703. Click on the thumbnail images to enlarge. Download is possible.
A selection of these sketches is described in An artist at Gallipoli – Major Hore with his Biographical details. He was with 4th reinforcements for the 8th Australian Light Horse Regiment, joining the regiment at Gallipoli on 26 May 1915.

Maps online

Trench maps of Suvla (provisional) 1:10 000 series (Squares 134 & 135). To enlarge, click on "Interactive zoomable image (needs Flash)". British Library Online Gallery.
  • "World War, 1914-1918 -- Campaigns -- Turkey -- Gallipoli Peninsula -- Maps.". Select "All online" filter, right hand side of the webpage. 32 online maps from National Library of Australia.
  • "Gallipoli" page 109 A Military Atlas of the First World War by Arthur Banks 1975. Lending Library.
  • Also see "Historical books online" which follows.
  • If you need additional maps, the Western Front Association, in association with the Imperial War Museums, has produced a Map DVD of more than 400 maps.[12]

Historical books online

Miscellaneous No.14 (1914): Despatch from His Majesty's Ambassador at Constantinople summarising events leading up to Rupture of Relations with Turkey, and reply thereto. Presented to both Houses of Parliament December 1914. HMSO 1914
  • The Straits Trilogy by Geoffrey Miller 1996-1999.
Superior Force : the conspiracy behind the escape of Goeben and Breslau by Geoffrey Miller 1996 ISBN 0 85958 635 9;
Straits: British Policy towards the Ottoman Empire and the Origins of the Dardanelles Campaign by Geoffrey Miller 1997 ISBN 0 85958 663 4;
The Millstone: British Naval Policy in the Mediterranean, 1900-1914, the Commitment to France and British Intervention in the War by Geoffrey Miller 1999 ISBN 0 85958 690 1
Military Operations Galliopli Vol-I Maps And Appendices 1929 Spelling is as catalogued. version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Note most of the maps are missing.
Military Operations Gallipoli Volume II. Full title: History of the Great War Based on Official Documents: Military Operations Gallipoli: Volume II May 1915 to the Evacuation. Links to a series of Chapter pdf downloads. Missing the Title page and Contents, Index is at the end of the book. STOU Digital Repository, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Thailand. Note, website has been noticed to be unavailable at times. Possibly may be open only during "office hours".
Maps from Military Operations: Gallipoli Volume II Maps and Appendices University of Toronto. Titled "The Third Battle of Krithia".
The Ancestry owned pay website fold3 includes an online book Gallipoli, (located in World War II/Military Books/Turkey) which consists of reprint editions from Naval & Military Press of the four volumes of Military Operations Gallipoli (being two volumes of text, and two volumes of appendices).
Official History of the Australian Army Medical Services, 1914–1918 Volume I – Gallipoli, Palestine and New Guinea (2nd edition, 1938). Australian War Memorial website.
Official historical account of the Dardanelles Campaign by Genelkurmay Baskanligi [Chief of General Staff] Turkey English translation 1925. Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library [USA Army]. Typescript copy translated from the Turk by Captain Larcher; translated from the French by Captain E.M. Benitez, the French translation appearing in Les Archives de la Grande Guerre, Volume 17 page 129 and page 257, published 1924. (
Online histories, Turkish language, from Ministry of National Defence, Republic of Turkey. Includes maps. Çanakkale Harbi Seris, Turkish language. Çanakkale War Series Google Translate English version of the website, (but not the histories). Includes item 6 Çanakkale Deniz Savaşı or Canakkale Sea Battle, and item 7 Birinci Dünya Harbi'nde Türk Harbi, Çanakkale Cephesi Harekâtı V. Cilt 1,2,3 Kitapların Özetlenmiş Tarihi or Turkish War in the First World War, Çanakkale Front Operation V. Volume 1,2,3. The latter is a summarised edition of three volumes. Direct pdf link for item 7, Turkish language.
Memoranda on some medical diseases in the Mediterranean war area, with some sanitary notes HMSO 1916
"The Fly Pest in Gallipoli" by Staff Surgeon E L Atkinson R N page 147 Journal of the Royal Naval Medical Service, Volume 2 1916.
"Medical impressions of the Gallipoli campaign from a Battalion Medical Officer's standpoint" by Temporary Surgeon J N MacBean Ross, Medical Officer, 2nd Battalion, Royal Marines. Page 313 , JRNMS Volume 2, 1916.
"Naval Medical History of the War: Official History of the Medical Unit of the Royal Naval Division from its inception to the Evacuation of Gallipoli" by Surgeon Rear-Admiral Arthur Gaskell JRNMS Volumes 11-12. 1925-1926. Initial pages, from page 193 not linked; pages 276-291; pages 36-57; pages 121-140; pages 219- 227; pages 288-309. Includes information about the Royal Naval Division generally, not just the Medical Unit.
Fifty Thousand Miles on a Hospital Ship by “The Padre” [Charles Steel Wallis] 1917 The hospital ship that Padre Wallis joined in 1915 was most likely the 'Goorkha'.[13] She was then an Indian Hospital Ship staffed by doctors from the Indian Medical Service, although subsequently became a British Hospital Ship. Includes evacuation of men from Gallipoli.
Sir Ian Hamilton’s Despatches from the Dardanelles 1915
Ian Hamilton’s Final Despatch 1916
  • Gallipoli Page 249 Khaki and Gown : an Autobiography by Field-Marshal Lord Birdwood 1941. Books to Borrow/Lending Library. Birdwood was Corps Commander Australian and New Zealand contingent.
  • Five Years in Turkey by Otto Liman von Sanders, translated, from the 1920 German edition Funf Jahre Turkei, by Col Carl Reichman, US Army (Retired) published 1927 by the United States Naval Institute. Contents. With two maps at the back of the book. Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek Sachsen-Anhalt. Also available version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
  • The Dardanelles Campaign by General Liman von Sanders translation and comments by E.H. Schulz, Colonel, Corps of Engineers, US Army (The Engineer School, Fort Humphreys, Virginia) 1931 An extract and translation from the above book Funf Jahre Turkei.
  • Landing of the British forces in Gallipoli, 1915 by Hans Kannengiesser Pasha. Translated version 1940, extract from original German edition Gallipoli, Bedeutung und Verlauf der Kämpfe 1915, published c 1927, (with a concurrent translation edition with title The campaign in Gallipoli). Author Hans Kannengiesser was a German general commanding the 9th Turkish division in the Fifth Army of General Liman von Sanders. He actually commanded Turkish troops in action, holding the Turkish rank of Pasha - roughly equivalent to marshal. Link to Pdf download Combined Arms Research Library [CARL] Digital Library [USA].
  • Grey Wolf: Mustafa Kemal An Intimate Study of a Dictator by H C Armstrong 1935, first published 1932. The WW1 period commences page 65. Mustafa Kemal was in command of the troops in the southern half of the Gallipoli peninsular. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Wikipedia. He became President of Turkey in 1923.
  • From Dardanelles to Palestine by Captain Sarkis Torossian. Boston,USA. 1947 Article: 'How the Armenian Genocide Forced a Loyal Ottoman Officer to Espouse the Arab Revolt" by Joseph A. Kéchichian, Contemporary Review of the Middle East, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2014. Captain Torossian was of Armenian descent & fought at Gallipoli as an Artillery observer in the Turkish Army. After the Armenian genocide he switched sides & commanded 6.000 Arabian horsemen with the Allied army to Damascus. Article "A short history of the Torossian debate" by Taner Akçam Journal of Genocide Research, 2015 Vol. 17, No. 3, 345– Some do not believe the account to be true. Other articles about Torossian's book may be found on Ayhan Aktar
  • Ambassador Morgenthau's Story by Henry Morgenthau, formerly American Ambassador in Turkey. 1919, first published 1918. UK title Secrets of the Bosphorus 1918. He was Ambassador in Constantinople late 1913 to early 1916, for twenty-six months.
  • Inside Constantinople: a diplomatist's diary during the Dardanelles expedition, April-September, 1915 by Lewis Einstein, late Special Agent at the American Embassy, Constaninople. 1917
  • From Berlin to Bagdad; Behind the Scenes in the Near East by George Abel Schreiner 1918. The author spent nine months in 1915 in warring Turkey as war and general correspondent of the United Press of America.
"Chapter VII Diplomacy in Turkey" page 110 The Craft Sinister; a diplomatico-political history of the great war and its causes by George Abel Schreiner 1920 Includes Comments about Mr Lewis Einstein, refer book author, above, page 132.
Based on the above, but revised, largely rewritten and condensed A History of the Great War, Volume II by John Buchan 1923
"The Dardanelles, Chapter II" page 29 Last Changes Last Chances by Henry W. Nevinson 1928 Henry Nevinson Wikipedia.
  • The Dardanelles by Major General Sir C E Callwell 1919 A book in the series "Campaigns and their Lessons".
Experiences of a Dug-Out, 1914-1918, by Major General Sir C E Callwell 1920 The author was appointed to the high ranking role of Director of Military Operations (DMO) at the War Office at the outbreak of the war. [Dug-Out: a retired officer, recalled to employment]. Includes "Chapter V: The Dardanelles", page 86.
The online JRAMC extracts are easier to read, but missing some parts. Gallipoli Chapters 5-9. Missing May 1936, Chapter 5, (available in main link from page numbered 349) 6-7 June 1936, 66 (6) 402-412; 8-9 July 1936, 67 (1) 58-66.
To Hell and Back : the banned account of Gallipoli by Sydney Loch Includes a bibliography by Susanna De Vries and Jake de Vries 2007. Books to Borrow/Lending Library.
Available on the pay website findmypast[19]. If signed in to findmypast, the links are Title page (image 4), Contents (image 12), The Dardanelles page 141 (image 158) - 6th (Service) Battalion).
Also available in a reprint edition[20], which in turn is available as an online book on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3.
Note the fold3 version is easier to read online than the findmypast version.
"Chaplain to the Forces in England and Gallipoli" page 121 Letters of Oswin Creighton, C.F., 1883-1918 edited by Louise Creighton 1920
  • From Gallipoli to Baghdad by William Ewing, Chaplain to the Forces 1917
  • Mons, Anzac and Kut by an MP (stated to be Aubrey Herbert) 1919
  • The Diary of a Yeomanry M.O. : Egypt, Gallipoli, Palestine and Italy by Captain O Teichman RAMC (T F) 1921 He was with the Worcester Yeomanry.
  • In the Side Shows by Captain Wedgewood Benn 1919 Some editions have the title In the Side Shows: Observations by a Flier on Five Fronts. The author was a Member of Parliament and joined the Middlesex Yeomanry, with whom he served at Gallipoli. He subsequently became military observer attached to the Royal Naval Air Service, East Indies and Egypt Seaplane Squadron.
  • With the Zionists in Gallipoli by Lieut. Col. J H Patterson 1916 The author was in command of the Zion Mule Corps.
Also see Fiction, below.
Also see above "Official History of the Medical Unit of the Royal Naval Division..."
  • At Antwerp and the Dardanelles by Rev. H.C. Foster [1918]. HathiTrust Digital Library, available full view to those in areas such as North America. Elsewhere it is advised Rev. Foster was a temporary chaplain with 2nd Royal Naval Brigade, Anson Battalion.
  • The Royal Naval Division by Douglas Jerrold 1923. Includes Gallipoli. National Library of Australia. The Division was under the authority of the Admiralty at Gallipoli.
The Hawke Battalion. Some personal records ... 1914-1918 by Douglas Jerrold 1925. version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
Page 131 Georgian Adventure The Autobiography of Douglas Jerrold 1937
  • History of the Great War based on official documents: Naval Operations by Sir Julian Stafford Corbett Volume II, (1921), Volume III (1923) has transcribed editions which additionally contain maps from a separate case for Volumes II and III.
Revised second editions were published: Volume 2 1929, with maps in pocket available at the British Library UIN: BLL01015219377 ; Volume 3 1940, whose dustjacket cover states "Important revisions" including in respect of the Dardanelles and Mesopotamia.[21]. A facsimile reprint of the 2nd edition of Volume 3 was reprinted by Imperial War Museum/Battery Press in 1995 UIN: BLL01011725482 and it is possible that the reprints available from Naval & Military Press, which are in turn available on the Ancestry owned pay website fold.3 contain the revised editions.


  1. "Gallipoli Campaign" Wikipedia. Refer External links, above.
  2. Discovery catalogue
  3. UK, WWI War Diaries (Gallipoli and Dardanelles), 1914-1916 consisting of WO 95/4263-4359 records. Ancestry. It seem probable that not all records within this range are included, in line with the Western Front database which does not included all records in the specified range.
  4. stiletto_33853. Ancestry vs National Archives Great War Forum 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018. Ancestry diaries may have large parts (many months) missing compared to TNA files
  5. MrSwan. Ancestry war diaries Great War Forum 17 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  6. Gallipoli Diaries and Great War Diaries
  7. Australian Imperial Force unit war diaries, 1914-18 War
  8. Over the Front, The League of WWI Aviation Historians
  9. Cross and Cockade International
  10. b3rn. Avro ? at Imbros Great War Forum 21 February 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  11. PassTHE knowledge by Akhi Soufyan
  12. Mapping the Front DVD Gallipoli Western Front Association.
  13. frev. Norwegian Matron on Indian Hospital Ship Great War Forum 3 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  14. michaeldr. Royal Engineers soldier abandoned in Gallipoli Great War Forum 29 June 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  15. Page from Chapter 2, Grasping Gallipoli: Terrain, Maps and Failure at the Dardanelles, 1915 by Peter Chasseaud, Peter Doyle. Google Books.
  16. "A Bibliography of Great War Medicine"
  17. Page from Our Friends Beneath the Sands: The Foreign Legion in France's Colonial Conquests 1870-1935 by Martin Windrow. Google Books
  18. June 2019 catalogue
  19. British Army Records & Regimental Histories located in Armed Forces & Conflict/Regimental & Service Records. findmypast. Click on 'Browse Title', select title, then click on 'View Results'.
  20. History of the Lincolnshire Regiment 1914-1918 Naval & Military Press
  21. MartH. Rarest book? post 869, page 35 Great War Forum 12 December 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  22. Navy In The Dardanelles Campaign Naval & Military Press
  23. Buley, Ernest Charles (1869–1933) Australian Dictionary of Biography
  24. Page 59The Dardanelles Campaign, 1915: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography‬ by Fred R. Van Hartesveldt Google Books
  25. Pages 51-52 English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918–39 by John Onions. Google Books
  26. Page 56, item 164 The Dardanelles Campaign, 1915: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography by Fred R van Hartesvelt Google Books