A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory.
Imperial Gazetteer of India
The Imperial Gazetteer of India was created by Sir William Wilson Hunter in 1881.
The third edition, published between 1909 and 1931, is available online, at the Digital South Asia Library, consisting of 24 volumes of text, and 1 volume of maps. It was first published, due to the efforts of Sir William Wilson Hunter, in 9 volumes in 1881 with a second edition of 14 volumes in 1885–1887.
Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series
In 1908/1909 the Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series was published with the following publications:
v.  Afghanistan and Nepal - v.  Andaman and Nicobar Islands - v.  Baluchistan - v.  Baroda - v. - Bengal, v. 1-2 - v.  Berar-- v. - Bombay Presidency, v. 1-2 - v. - Burma, v. 1-2 --v.  Central India - v.  Central Provinces - v.  Eastern Bengal and Assam - v.  Hyderabad State-- v.  Kashmir and Jammu - v. - Madras, v. 1-2 - v.  Mysore and Coorg. - v.  North-West Frontier Province - v. - Punjab, v. 1-2 - v.  Rajputana - v. - United Provinces of Agra and Oudh
The following are available on Archive.org
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Central Provinces
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Hyderabad State
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Madras Volume I
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Madras Volume II
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series North-West Frontier Province
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Punjab Volume II
- In addition, many volumes are available to read online on the Digital Library of India website, including
- The Imperial Gazetteer of India Afghanistan And Nepal . Contents: Afghanistan computer page 7, Nepal cp 10; Index cp 141
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Baluchistan . Contents computer page 4, Index cp 213
- A number of files for Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Punjab Volume I
- The East Indian Gazetteer by Walter Hamilton,
- A Geographical, Statistical, and Historical description of Hindostan, and the Adjacent Countries by Walter Hamilton 1820 Volume 1, Volume 2 Google Books
- A Gazetteer of the Territories under the Government of the East-India Company, and of the Native States on the Continent of India A-PUTTA by Edward Thornton (1857) OOJ-Z (1854) Google Books
- Index of place names for Constable's 1893 Area Maps from Ian Poyntz’s Historical Maps of India
- A Description of the Roads in Bengal and Bahar by James Rennell 1778 Google Books. Although not a Gazetteer, this book contains many place names.
- Various Bengal District Gazetteers are available as searchable pdfs on DSpace at West Bengal State Central Library under the subject category Gazetteers and Gazeeteers, the latter includes Bengal District Gazetteers: 24-Parganas 1914 by L.S.S. O'Malley. Also, many editions for various districts are available to read online on the Digital Library of India website, under the title Bengal District Gazetteers including districts in East Bengal.
- Gazetteers Of Haryana, previously part of Bengal. Haryana Government website. Some links are available as searchable pdfs, others are in html format. Includes Delhi District 1883-84, 1912; Kurnaul (Karnal) District 1892, Umballa (Ambala) District 1883-84, 1892, 1923-24
- Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency Volumes 1-27, 1877-1904 Archive.org. For Sind, see below.
- Madras District Gazetteers
- The Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Local Gazetteer 1908 Archive.org
- Baluchistan District Gazetteer Series: Volumes VII and VIIA: Makran and Kharan is available to read online on the Digital Library of India website. Makran Contents, computer page 14. Volume VIIA Kharan commences computer page 386, Contents computer page 390
- Gazetteer for the Haidarabad Assigned Districts Commonly Called Berar 1870 Archive.org
- The Gazetteer of the Central Provinces of India by Charles Grant 1870 Archive.org
- Central Provinces District Gazetteers: Bilaspur District Volume A Descriptive 1910 Archive.org (Volume 7)
- Central Provinces District Gazetteers: Chhattisgarh Feudatory States 1909 Archive.org (Volume 10)
- Central Provinces District Gazetteers: Raipur District Volume A Descriptive 1909 Archive.org (Volume 18)
- Gazetteers of Central Provinces and Berar. Digital reprints by Maharashtra State Gazetteers Department, of some individual Districts, including Nagpur (archived webpage)
- A supplement to the Fatehpur Gazetteer 1887 Archive.org
- The Himalayan Gazetteer or the Himalayan Districts of the North Western Province of India by Edwin T Atkinson in 3 Volumes (6 Parts) originally published 1882, 1884, 1886 is available, in a reprint edition, to read online on the Digital Library of India website. Covers the regions of Kumaon and Garhwal. This area is now the state of Uttarakhand. Volume 1, part 1 Contents computer page 12; Volume 1, part 2 Contents cp 12, Index cp 536; Volume 2, part 1 Contents cp18; Volume 2, part 2 Contents cp 16 Index cp 458, includes History of the British in the area; Volume 3, part 1 Contents cp 10 Place names A-J; Volume 3, part 2 Contents cp 8 Place names K-Z.
- Madhya Pradesh District Gazetteers: Indore (Central India) 1971 Google Books
- Directory for the Mahi Kantha Agency , Volume 1 by F. Sorabji, 1922 is available to read online on the Digital Library of India website. Contents computer page 10. Mahi Kantha was a political agency or collection of Princely States within the Gujarat Division of Bombay Presidency
- Mysore was a Princely State
- Mysore and Coorg : A gazetteer compiled for the government of India by Lewis Rice Archive.org
- Mysore: a Gazetteer compiled for Government Revised Edition
- Mysore Gazetteer edited by C. Hayavadana Rao published 1927-1930 in 5 volumes (Volume 2 is in 4 parts) (total 8). Volume 1, Descriptive; Volume 2, Historical (in 4 Parts); Volume 3, Economic; Volume 4, Administrative; Volume 5, Gazetteer; is available to read online on the Digital Library of India website. One volume is available on Archive.org Mysore Gazetteer Volume 2 Part 4:Historical, Modern Period c 1930
- Gazetteer of the Countries Adjacent to India on the Northwest by Edward Thornton (1844). Includes Sind, Afghanistan, Baluchistan and the Punjab.
- Punjab District Gazetteers
- Panjab Digital Library includes a number of Punjab District Gazetteers (The spelling also includes Gazeteer/ Gazetter/ Gazeetter). It is necessary to first register to read more than the first few pages of each book, which are available to read online.
- Various Punjab District Gazetteers are available to read online on the Digital Library of India website, including
- Punjab District Gazetteers, Volume XXVIIIA, Rawalpindi District 1907, published 1909. "Table of Contents" commences computer page 8.
- Rajputana Gazetteer Volume 2 1879 Archive.org
- The Gazetteer of Sikkim 1894 Archive.org . (Sikkim was a Princely State)
- A Gazetteer of the Province of Sind by AW Hughes 1876 Archive.org
- The following volumes are available to read online on the Digital Library of India website: Gazetteer of the Province of Sind by EH Aitken 1907. This contains matters of a permanent character and general interest. ('A' volume) There are also additional 'B' volumes (probably seven) containing statistical tables and matters of local interest, published in 1919 and 1926-1928. The first six are available to read online on DLI
- Volume I- Karachi District, 1919, Volume II- Hyderabad District 1927, Volume III -Sukkur District 1928 (catalogued as b vol.iii (karachi district)), Volume IV- Larkana District 1927, Volume V- Nawabshah District 1926, Volume VI-Thar and Parkar District 1926 (Not available online: B Volume VII Upper Sind Frontier District, but it is probably available at the British Library).
- A Gazetteer of Southern India: with the Tenasserim Provinces and Singapore Pharoah and Co (1855) Google Books
- Gazetteer of Ulwur by PW Powlett 1878. (Princely State of Alwar , Ulwar or Ulwur (Rajputana Agency))
- Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh (1877-1878) Archive .org
- District Gazetteers of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh compiled and edited by H.R. Nevill, published 1903-1936. There appear to be 48 volumes.
- Volume 4 Meerut compiled and edited by H. R. Nevill 1904 Archive.org
- Restricted access, probably available to those in North America. Hathi Trust
- Bhagirathi - The Institute Repository of IIT Roorkee in the Archives collection of the Central Library has many Gazetteers in this series, which may be download as (large) pdfs. Selecting “Browse by title , and then letter G the following are available, (Lucknow is under D for District), including
- Many volumes are also available to read online on the Digital Library of India website. Some of the volumes are only catalogued by volume number (in Roman numerals), but see separate list
- Refer Gazetteer of the Countries Adjacent to India on the Northwest by Edward Thornton (1844) under India, Regional
- Refer Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series above
- The British Burma Gazetteer Volume 2, A-Z (1879) Archive.org
- Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States (1900-1901) Archive.org
- The Ceylon Gazetteer; containing an accurate account of the districts, provinces, cities, towns, principal villages, harbours, rivers, lakes &c. of the Island of Ceylon, together with sketches of the manners, customs, institutions, agriculture, commerce, manufactures, revenues, population, castes, religion, history of its various inhabitants 1834 Google Books
- A Gazetteer of the Central Province of Ceylon (excluding Walapane) by Archibald Campbell Lawrie Archive.org
- Refer Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series above
Persian Gulf, Oman And Central Arabia
- Three volumes of the Gazetteer Of The Persian Gulf, Oman And Central Arabia by J G Lorimer, Indian Civil Service, are available to read online on the Digital Library of India website, being Parts I and II (missing Part III), of Volume 1, Historical, published 1915 and the Geographical section of Volume II, Geographical and Statistical Gazetteer, published 1908.
- Both Parts of Volume I, Historical, have the same extensive index, covering all Parts. Part I consists of the 'Arabian' portion of the History. Part I Contents computer pages 12-137. Text commences cp 138. Part II consists of the 'Persian' section of the History. Part II Contents computer pages 10-133. Text commences cp 134. Appendix "Published books and articles" cp 1210. Part III is not available online.
- Volume II Geographical and Statistical Gazetteer. There is no Index. Introduction pages i-iii are missing. The text is cp 8-2047 and appears to be all Geographical. The Statistical portion is not available online.
- India List post by Max Smith regarding Marcus F C Martin, a geographer who devised a simple way to understand the old English spellings for Indian places. “For example, FATEHPUR (‘City of Victory’) is a fairly common placename and by the mid-19th century it could be spelled in at least seven ways: FUTTIHPOOR, FUTIHPORE, FUTTAPORE, FUTTEHPOOR, FUTTIPOUR, FUTTYPOOR, FUTTYPORE etc. Marcus saw that the consonants were fairly accurate and could be reduced to a short code: here ‘FTP’ or, if you prefer 4 characters, ‘FTPR’. Then
- a.. treat soft ‘c’, ‘ch’ and ‘chh’ as being the same;
- b.. treat hard ‘c’, ‘k’ and ‘q’ also as the same; and
- c.. treat double consonants as single (‘ck’ as ‘k’, ‘tt’ as ‘t’ etc);
- d.. Ignore vowels, except at the beginning of a name, when they should be replaced by a wildcard, such as a dash (-).
- Marcus was apparently delighted to find, using this principle, that OOMRAWUTTEE was modern AMRAOTI (both names will code to ‘-MRT’). He published a pamphlet which is long since out of print, with coded tables for the 3,900 Post Offices that existed in India in 1877, when they were renamed in standardised form and continued until independence.
- The principle is quite easy to remember and helps enormously when looking up placenames in atlases and gazetteers.”
- Robert S. Cragg’s World Postmarks (archive.org link)
- Finding the Obscure and the Elusive: Geographic Information On the Web A presentation by James L. Tanner at Rootstech 2013