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Maritime Service

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Historical books online
==FIBIS Resources==
[http / ''FIBIS Research Guide No. 2 An Introduction to British Ships in Indian Waters : Their Owners, Crew and Passengers''] by Richard Morgan with a Foreword by Lawrie Butler, 68 pages, published 2012, with Bibliography and Index
*Part I – the East India Company’s Maritime Service
*Part II – Country Ships
*Appendix 1: Summary of information on Free Mariners and Passengers in Directories
*Appendix 2: The Indian Marine Service in the IOR L/F/10 and other Series.
Available from the [http / FIBIS Shop]
For updates to the first edition, see [[British Ships in Indian Waters]].
==Records at the British Library==
*'''IOR/L/MAR''' Marine Department Records.
:There are three main series: L/MAR/A Ships' Journals 1605-1705; L/MAR/B Ships' Journals 1702-1856; L/MAR/C Marine Miscellaneous Records 1600-1879. *[ The British Library IOR Maritime Service page]. ** Read about [ Ships' Journals '''IOR/L/MAR/A-B'''] 1605-1856. The various ships are listed alphabetically, following the order in ''Catalogue of East India Company Ships' Journals and Logs 1600-1834'' by Anthony J.Farrington (London, 1999).<br>[ Browse the ships’ names] (Discovery catalogue). Alternatively, use the ship's name in [ The British Library’s "Search our Catalogue Archives and Manuscripts"].:: Also see [[Ships' Journals]].:*A description of [ Marine Miscellaneous Records '''IOR/L/MAR/C'''] 1600-1879.(Discovery) "The collection is in process of re-arrangement and listing in separate series L/MAR/1-9 according to type and provenance". Included in these records are "personnel records of the Company's maritime service (at all levels of employment, but including particularly the appointment and services of commanders and mates of East Indiamen), the Bombay Marine, the Indian Navy, and the Bengal Pilot Service" but no further details are given. 
===British Library records on findmypast===
The India Office Records on the pay site [[Findmypast|findmypast]] are
===British Library records on FamilySearch (LDS) microfilms===
Search For microfilms available in the LDS (Mormon) library catalogue, see '''[[IOR Marine records on LDS films]]''' or search the [ FamilySearch Library Catalogue] using keywords India Office Marine Department. ([[FamilySearch Centres#Ordering microfilms|Ordering microfilms]]) :'''Note''': Microfilm ordering services has ceased however selected microfilms have been digitised and are currently available for viewing on a FamilySearch computer at a FamilySearch Centre. Locate these records through the FamilySearch catalogue. It is expected that in time all microfilms will be similarly available in this format.
==Malim Sahib's Hindustani==
A Malim Sahib was a ship’s officer. There was a specialised nautical, bazaar baht or bat, vocabulary spoken by Indian crews.
A dictionary was published in 1920, ''The Malim Sahib's Hindustani'' <ref>Woods, Chris.[ American English & Malim Sahib's Hindustani] ''Rootsweb India-British-Raj Mailing List'' 11 September 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2018. ''The Malim Sahib's Hindustani: for use both ashore and afloat in connection with Lascars and all other low-caste natives of India who speak the bazaar "bat”'' by C T Willson, Bombay Pilot Service. “For ship's officers who wish to acquire a working knowledge of low Hindustani spoken by native crews, coolies, servants and longstoreman generally. All nautical terms and words in common use both ashore and afloat are included."</ref>, which became a required text book for all Cadets, Officers, Radio Officers and Engineers, on joining the British India Steam Navigation Company.<ref>Feltham, John. [http Sea Cunny] ''Rootsweb India Mailing List'' 24 October 2002. Retrieved 4 December 201525 October 2018.</ref> The language was a mixture of
Hindustani-Gujarati-Marathi-Konkani (Ratnagiri), a little Urdu..... a pot pourri of words, but simple and effective.<ref name= Malim>"The Maalim Saabs Hindustani" [ Part 1], [ Part 2] Mariner’s Nostalgia website. Mandatory for British Officers on B I Ships.</ref> The vocabulary was considered similar to a dialect, in that a European who had learnt this vocabulary was said to speak Malim Sahib's (Sahibs) Hindustani.
The officers' titles were: Captain - Captain sahib; C/O - Burra malim sahib;
2/O - Majla Malim sahib; 3/O - Sajla Malim sahib; 4/O - or other Junior - Chota malim sahib.<ref name=Malim/>
Refer below for references to earlier use and publications.
== External links ==
*[http The British Library IOR Maritime Service page]. **There is a set of records called Ships' Journals '''IOR/L/MAR/A-B''' 1605-1856. [ Read] about these records . The various ships are listed alphabetically, following the order in ''Catalogue of org East India Company Ships' Journals and Logs 1600-1834'' ] developed by Anthony J.Farrington (London Andrea Cordani, 1999).<br>Browse but she is no longer updating the ships names (Discovery catalogue): [ A - Darling]website, [http://discoverywhich now has a new!&sUp=false&sK=%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23320 Dart - Halifax (1)], Includes [httphttps://discovery.nationalarchiveseicships.govthreedecks.ukorg/browsehelp/r/4a0ce5ff-4720-488a-bc31-d5314830ecdd?src=6&cK=!&sUp=false&sK=%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23610 Halifax (2) - Madras Merchant (2)], [ Ship roles -d6b5-4201-95ea-30924a6b9a0ewhat do they mean?src=6&cK=%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%235633&sUp=false&sK=%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23%23871 Maitland - Samuel (3)], [ Samuel and Anna -Z plus extra ships names from 1834].**A description glossary of [ Marine Miscellaneous Records Ship roles defining terms such as 'Regular Ship', 'IOR/L/MAR/CExtra Ship'and 'Country Ship.'] 1600-1879.(Discovery) "The collection previous site is in process of re-arrangement and listing in separate series Lnow [https:/MAR/1-9 according to type and provenance"web. Included in these records are "personnel records of the Company's maritime service (at all levels of employment, but including particularly the appointment and services of commanders and mates of East Indiamen), the Bombay Marine, the Indian Navy, and the Bengal Pilot Service" but no further details are givenarchive.**For microfilms available in the LDS (Mormon) library catalogue, see '''[[IOR Marine records on LDS films]]'''*[http:org/web/www.eicships.info20161220141624/index.html Andrea Cordani's EIC Ships website] which includes a [ glossary of Ship rolesarchived] defining terms such as 'Regular Ship' , 'Extra Ship' and 'Country Ship.'
*[ East-India Company ship routes 1798-1834] by Philip Brohan. Video. Retrieved 16 October 2014.The dates of the voyages are shown in the bottom left hand corner of the video screen, and may at times be obscured by the toolbar. Move the computer's mouse from the toolbar to below the video screen to reveal. The video indicates the seasonal variations in the ships' voyages.
*National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
**[ National Maritime Museum Research Guides]
**[ Maritime Memorials] in respect of ships’ crews’ deaths. Search for entries for India, Burma, Burmah and Myanmar, Ceylon and Sri Lanka, and other countries such as China, Singapore etc. (Entries for Karachi were classified as India).<ref> Some entries are listed in the India List post [http Maritime cemetery entries from National Maritime Museum website]''Rootsweb India Mailing List'' 5 January 2014. Retrieved 25 October 2018. The correct [ ''Notes and Queries''] reference for the Karachi burials mentioned is either Vol 170/171 1936 or Vol 176 1939.</ref>, or search by name. An associated National Maritime Museum website.
**[ Crew Lists of the British Merchant Navy-1915] National Maritime Museum. The crews originated from all over the world and on some vessels the British nationals were in a minority
*See the Fibiwiki page [[Ireland]] for Irish Crew Lists 1863-1921. Crews could originate from all over the world. *See the Fibiwiki page [[Hong Kong]] for the free Searchable database for Hong Kong Cemetery which indicates there were sailors buried there.
*[ British Maritime History - Realistic genealogical guides to surviving records and more], Len Barnett’s site, has sections on:
:*[ EIC]- A realistic guide to what is available to those looking into the careers of seagoing servants (1600-1834)
*[ East India Company Mariners] including information on the Society of East India Commanders and a list of Commanders from 1828 from [ Mariners - Researching the mariners and ships of the merchant marine and the world's navies]. This website also contains the [ Mariners Mailing List], [ Search the Mariners Mailing List Archives]; [ Index of Ships' Official Numbers below 99,999], [ Official Numbers: Ships over 300 g.t. built 1876 – 1949]
*[ Merchant Vessels in the Service of the East India Company, 1601-1832] on the Mariners website. Lists ship details.
*Maritime Resources 'Articles of Agreement' by Chris Wood Woods dated 30 August 2013<ref>India-British-Raj List post [http Maritime Resources 'Articles of Agreement'] by Chris Wood Woods dated 30 August 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2018.</ref>*[ "Journey to India of Randolph Marriott, East India Company Servant"] 8 November 2018. British Library Untold lives blog. He had been appointed a [[Writer|writer]] in Bengal, and left England 22 January 1753 on the ship Portfield, arriving on 25 July 1753.*[ "The loss of the East Indiaman ‘Ganges’" [in 1807<nowiki>]</nowiki>] 15 June 2017. British Library untold lives blog.
*[ A Journal of a voyage to the Cape of Good Hope and Bombay in the Ship Sesostris by James Smith, 1829-1831]
*[ Arthur David Linklater, Master Mariner] - Duncan Linklater's excellent site contains information on shipping and navigation in the early twentieth century, including details of Linklater's employment by the British India Steam Navigation Company, the Royal Naval Reserve and the Calcutta Port Commission. It is located in the section of the [ Quivis] site called Dum. With scans and transcripts of original documents and many pages containing facts useful to those with an ancestor in sailing and shipping, exploring the site is recommended (note also the [ biographical section contents page]).
*[ Chapter 24: "Working Along Mighty Rivers of the East"] from his autobiography ''Lest I Forget'' by Khwaja Sayeed Shahabuddin (born 1923). Mentions the "India General Navigation Company Limited (an English company) and River Steamers Navigation Company Limited (a Scottish company). Originally competitors, they later merged to become known as the Joint Steamer Companies and together played a vital role in the development of inland water transport in Bengal and Assam.” The author joined I.G.N. Company, the British Inland Water Transport Company, in 1947. [ Chapter 26: "Working with the Joint Steamer Companies"]
*[ A Short History of British India Steam Navigation 1856-1956] from B I Ship. Contains details of the establishment of The Calcutta & Burmah Steam Navigation Co Ltd which became the British India Steam Navigation Co.
:[ British India Steam Navigation Company] from the Ships’ List.:A History of the British India Steam Navigation Company Limited [httphttps://docsweb.googlearchive.comorg/web/20150927172650/viewer? html version], [ A History of the British India Steam Navigation Company Limited], pdf], now archived. Includes a list of ships, with details.
:[ ‘Chota Sahib’] by Captain John de Barr. The Coast Men of British India’s fleet. In BI the Coast referred to the Coast of India., now archived.
*[ P&O Heritage] includes History of Shipping Companies such British India Steam Navigation Company (‘History’ tab); Research Guides and Ship Images and Fact Sheets ( ‘Archive’ tab)
*[ Asiatic Steam Navigation Company] from the Ships’ List.
*The occupation of Master Attendant, equivalent to Harbour Master.<ref>Wilde, Liz. [ Master Attendant] ''Rootsweb India Mailing List '' 23 July 2010 and Wilde, Liz. [http threadMaster Attendant]''Rootsweb India Mailing List'' 25 July 2010. Retrieved 25 October 2018. </ref> Initially it appears these men were part of EIC Marine, and later the [[Indian Navy|Royal Indian Marine]]
*[ History of Development of Maritime Regulations/Acts and Changing body of Controlling Authorities] Mercantile Marine Department, Mumbai
*[ "Troopships and Trooping"] Transcript of an article from ''Shipping Wonders of the World'', part 39, published 3 November 1936. Includes troopships to India.
:The [[Trooping season|trooping season]] between India and the United Kingdom lasted for about seven months each year. The gap, April-October/November in India was the same each year – to avoid the worst of the heat in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
*[ Lascars] Maritime History Archive.
*[ "A Laskari Lexicon – 1"] May 17, 2013; [ "A Laskari Lexicon – 2"] May 21, 2013
*"Of Fanás and Forecastles: The Indian Ocean and Some Lost Languages of the Age of Sail" A series pf eleven articles December 10-31, 2012 [ Pt.1], [ Pt.2], [ Pt.3], [ Pt.4], [ Pt.5], [ Pt.6],[ Pt.7], [ Pt.8], [ Pt. 9], [ Pt.10], [ Pt.11]
*[ ''The Oriental Compass, Volumes 1 and 2''] by Lawrence B. Bangerter c 2007?. Transcriptions. “Lists name of vessel, place of embarkation, place of debarkation, date and Family History Library passenger list film number”. Shipping is India-USA and China-USA. Volume 2 is mostly China-USA. FamilySearch website. You need to be registered and sign in first, see [[Family Search]].
*[ 1923 Map: The World - Sailing Ship Routes] Great Britain. Hydrographic Office. London : HMSO, 1923.
====Historical books online====
*[ ''A Register of Ships, Employed in the Service of the Hon. the United East India Company, from the Union of the Two Companies, in 1707, to the Year 1760: Specifying the Number of Voyages, Tonnage, Commanders, and Stations. To which is Added, from the Latter Period to the Present Time, the Managing Owners, Principal Officers, Surgeons, and Pursers; with the Dates of Their Sailing and Arrival: Also, an Appendix, Containing Many Particulars, Interesting to Those Concerned in the East India Commerce''] Printed for Charles Hardy London 1800. Google Books. Also available on Ancestry (pay website) in the database "UK, Registers of Employees of the East India Company and the India Office, 1746-1939".
:[ ''A Register of Ships, Employed in the Service of the Honorable the United East India Company 1760-1810''] by Charles Hardy and Horatio Charles Hardy 1811 Google Books. Also available on Ancestry.
*[ "Return to an order of the Honourable House of Commons, dated 26 June 1833 for: Lists of all pensions granted by the Company to Commanders, Officers, Seamen, Widows and Orphans, of the East India Company’s Commercial Marine Service. since the year 1793 to the present time; specifying the grounds upon which such pension was granted, the amount of each, and the source whence the pensions are derived"]. ''House of Commons Accounts and Papers: Session 29 January-29 August 1833 Volume XXVI'' Google Books
*[ ''A voyage to and from the island of Borneo, in the East Indies : with a description of the said island … Also a description of the islands of Canary, Cape Verd, Java, Madura; of the streights of Bally, the Cape of Good Hope, the Hottentots, the island of St. Helena, Ascension etc''] by Captain Daniel Beeckman 1718. The first chapter states he was in the service of the East India Company. He sailed from England October 1713. South East Asia Visions Cornell University Library. Note, may be very slow to open.
*[ ''Journal or Narrative of the Boscawen's Voyage to Bombay 1749, by a young gentleman''] Google Books
*[ ''A Journal of the Proceedings of the Doddington East-Indiaman, till she was unfortunately wrecked on the East Coast of Africa''] [in 1755]. page 235 ''A journal from Calcutta in Bengal, by sea, to Busserah'' by Bartholomew Plaisted 1758 Google Books. [ version] includes a [ Map]. [ Transcribed edition]
*[ ''The India officer's and trader's pocket-guide. In purchasing the drugs and spices of Asia and the East-Indies: With practical directions for the choice of diamonds, and an accurate account of the Chinese touch-needles [by W. Lewis<nowiki>]</nowiki> ... To which are prefixed, a complete account of the officers privilege ... and the duties of, and drawbacks on, East India goods'']. Compiled from Authority by H D S. 2nd edition 1789 Includes information relating to Ships' crews, East India [Company] Service.
*[ ‪''Journal of a Voyage Performed in the Lion Extra Indiaman, from Madras to Columbo and Da Lagoa Bay ... in the Year 1798'']‬ by William White, Captain, [[73rd Regiment of Foot|73rd Highland Regiment of Foot]]. 1800 Google Books
*[ ''A Register of Ships, Employed in the Service of the Honorable the United East India Company 1760-1810''] by Charles Hardy and Horatio Charles Hardy 1811 Google Books*[ ''A Master Mariner. Being the Life and Adventures of Captain Robert William Eastwick''] edited by Herbert Compton. 1891 Final pages 331-351 appear to be missing to read online but are available in the [ text (and perhaps other) versions]. Captain Eastwick was born 1772. He arrived in Bombay in June 1792 and shortly afterwards joined a ship engaged in the 'country trade', and later owned his own ships. He last sailed c 1825 and wrote his autobiography c 1836.
**[ HEIC practices c 1791], page 41
**[ "Chapter II"], page 59 The author joined in 1792 the Honorable East India Company, and shortly after "the country service in a merchant ship".
*[ ''A voyage to India : containing reflections on a voyage to Madras and Bengal, in 1821, in the ship Lonach : instructions for the preservation of health in Indian climates and hints to surgeons and owners of private trading-ships''] by James Wallach, Surgeon of the Lonach. 1824*[ "Extracts from the Journals of Thomas Addison of the East India Company’s Service 1801-1829"] page 333 ''The Naval Miscellany, Volume I''. Publications of the Navy Records Society, Volume XX 1902*[''Narrative of a Late Steam Voyage from England to India via the Mediteranean. (Part II. Account of a Late Palankeen Trip from Bombay to Mhow and Lahore)''] by Captain T Seymour Burt 1840. British Library Digital Collection. The voyage took place from October 1837. , via Suez. The author changed ships a number of times.*''The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle. A Journal of Papers on Subjects Connected with Maritime Affairs''. Google Books. Some editions have Contents pages at the front of the book, and some have an Index at the back. There may be other digital editions available if the text is unclear. Contain articles relevant to India, and the seas around India.:[ Vol.1 1832], [ Vol.2 1833], [ Vol.3 1834], [ Vol.4 1835], [ Vol.5 1836], [ Vol.6 1837], [ Vol.7 1838], [ Vol.8 1839], [ Vol.9 1840]:[ Vol.10 1841], [ Vol.11 1842], [ Vol.12 1843], [ Vol.14 1845], [ Vol.16 1847], [ Vol.17 1848], [ Vol.18 1849], [ Vol.19 1850]:[ Vol.20 1851], [ Vol.21 1852], [ Vol.22 1853], [ Vol.23 1854], [ Vol.24 1855], [ Vol.25 1856], [ Vol.26 1857], [ Vol.27 1858], [ Vol.28 1859], [ Vol.29 1860]:[ Vol.30 1861], [ Vol.31 1862], [ Vol.32 1863], [ Vol.33 1864], [ Vol.34 1865], [ Vol.35 1866], [ Vol.36 1867], [ Vol.37 1868], [ Vol.38 1869], [ Vol.39 1870]:[ Vol.40 1871], [ Vol.41 1872], [ Vol.42 1873], [ Vol.43 1874], [ Vol.44 1875], [ Vol.45 1876], [ Vol.50 1881][ HathiTrust Digital Library editions], including editions only accessible in some regions such as North America.
*''Volume I, Part II The Bengal and Agra Annual Guide and Gazetteer for 1842'' Google Books
**[ "Vessels attached to the Bengal Presidency"], page 21. Includes Steam Vessels, and Iron Steam Vessels appropriated to Inland Navigation, the latter consisting of Steamers, Accomodation Boats and Cargo Boats.
**[ "Inland Steam Traveller’s Guide"] page 26
*[ "On the Advantages of Extending Inland Steam Navigation in India"] page 381 ''The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal 1843''. Mentions steam boats "belonging to the Bengal Government"
*''The India Directory: or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America'' by James Horsburgh Sixth Edition 1852 Google Books [ Volume 1], [ Volume 2]
*[ "Appendix in respect of War Steamers, also called Sea Steamers, belonging to the Presidency of Bengal, for a ten year period from 1841"] page 390 ''First Report from the Select Committee on Indian Territories'' May 1853 Google Books. Same [ page 390, Hathi Trust] where the pages may be rotated.
*[ ''The Golden Dagon, or, Up and Down the Irrawaddi: being Passages of Adventure in the Burman Empire''] by John Williamson Palmer 1856 Google Books. The author was an American doctor, appointed, in Hong Kong, surgeon on the EIC war steamer Phlegethon ('''Bengal Marine''') which took part in the [[2nd Burma War]], 1852-1853
*[''Commerce by river in the Punjab (1861-62 to 1871-72) or a Survey of the Marine Department of the Government of the Punjab''] by Faqir Chand Arrora 1930. GIPE Pune
*[ ''On the preservation of the health of seamen, especially of those frequenting Calcutta and the other Indian ports''] by Norman Chevers MD, Surgeon, Bengal Army 1864 Google Books
*[ ''Practical sailing directions and coasting guide from the Sand Heads to Rangoon, Maulmain, Akyab, and vice versa. To which is added, Directions for the entire Bay of Bengal and Straits of Malacca''] by N Heckford Sixth Edition, Enlarged and Improved 1871 Google Books*[ n7 ''A Handbook of Directions to the Ports in the Presidency The Good Old Days of Madras and CeylonShipping''] by T. E. Marshall, First Assistant Master Attendant, Madras W H Coates Lieut. R N R 1874. British Library Digital Collection1900[http oldcountrytradeo00coatrich ''The Old 'Country Trade'A Handbook to the Ports on the Coast of India between Calcutta and Bombay, including the Island of CeylonEast Indies''] by William Herbert Samuel Brown, LieutenantCoates, Comm. R.N.R(retired) 1911 Archive., Port and Customs Officer, Mangalore. 1897. British Library Digital*[ cu31924020891416/page/n5 ''The Old 'Country Trade' Clipper Ship Era; an epitome of the East Indiesfamous American and British clipper ships, their owners, builders, commanders, and crews, 1843-1869''] by William Herbert Coates, Comm. R N R (retired) Arthur Hamilton Clark 1911 Important for the China trade.
*[ ''The Old East Indiamen''] by E. Keble Chatterton, 1914
*[httphttps://wwwarchive.neworg/details/ ''East Indiamen: The East India Company’s Maritime Service''] by Sir Evan Cotton. Edited by Sir C. G. H. Fawcett. 1949. Pdf, Digital Public Library of IndiaCollection. *[ ''Trade In The Eastern Seas 1793-1813''] by C. Northcote Parkinson 1937, Public Library of India Collection.*[ ''Merchant Adventurers, 1914-1918''] by F. A. Hook 1920 A "compilation of the war records of the P. and O., British India and associated lines." Unfortunately Note the file is lacking the illustrations which should be in the book. [ British Library digital file], with illustrations. A different digital file: [ Pdf download], Digital Library of India.
*[ ''The Blackwall Frigates''] by Basil Lubbock 1922 The Blackwall frigates formed a link betrween the the East Indiaman of the Honourable East India Company and the P&O and Orient liners
*[ ''Reminiscences of a Blackwall Midshipman''] by W I Downie 1912 Page 100 commences a section on India and Indian waters. The author was born c 1848 , so was probably writing of the 1860s
*[ Chapter III: "History and Reasons for Decline of Gangetic Navigation"] page 27 ''Inland Navigation On The Gangetic Rivers'' by J Johnston, ICS 1947
*[ ''The Bombay Dockyard and the Wadia Master Builders''] by Ruttonjee Ardeshir Wadia 1955*[ ''Lauterbach of the China Sea : the Escapes and Adventures of a Seagoing Falstaff''] by Lowell Thomas, 1930 [ Julius Lauterbach] Wikipedia Google Translate English] [1877-1937], [ Original German version]. From c 1900 to the start of WW1, Lauterbach sailed the China Sea, becoming Captain, with the initial chapters covering this period.*[ ''The Old Merchant Marine: A Chronicle of American Ships and Sailors''] by Ralph D Paine 1920 Contains some references to India.*[ ''Indian Shipping: A History of the Sea-Borne Trade and Maritime Activities of the Indians from the Earliest Times''] by Radhakumud Mookerji 1912*[ ''Valiant voyaging : a short history of the British India Steam Navigation Company in the Second World War, 1939-1945''] by Hilary St. George Saunders 1948. Books to Borrow/Lending Library. Includes a Roll of Honour of Officers and Men who lost their lives at sea due to enemy action.*[ ''Investment in Empire; British railway and steam shipping enterprise in India, 1825-1849''] by Daniel Thorner 1950. Lending Library.*Directories etc**[ ''Sailing Directions for the Oriental Or East-India Pilot''] 1778 Google Books**[ ''A New Nautical Directory for the East-India and China Navigation''] 7th edition 1804 Google Books**''The India Directory: or, Directions for Sailing to and from the East Indies, China, Australia, and the Interjacent Ports of Africa and South America'' by James Horsburgh Sixth Edition 1852 Google Books [ Volume 1], [ Volume 2]**[ ‪ ''Navigation of the Indian Ocean, China and Australian Seas: With an Account of the Winds, Weather, and Currents Found Therein Throughout the Year : According to the Most Approved Authorities, Including Extensive Extracts from the Nautical Magazine''‬] by A B Becher, Captain R N, of the Hydrographis Office, Admiralty. 3rd edition 1864 Google Books**[ ''Practical sailing directions and coasting guide from the Sand Heads to Rangoon, Maulmain, Akyab, and vice versa. To which is added, Directions for the entire Bay of Bengal and Straits of Malacca''] by N Heckford Sixth Edition, Enlarged and Improved 1871 Google Books**[ ''A Handbook of Directions to the Ports in the Presidency of Madras and Ceylon''] by T. E. Marshall, First Assistant Master Attendant, Madras. 1874. British Library Digital Collection.**[ ''A Handbook to the Ports on the Coast of India between Calcutta and Bombay, including the Island of Ceylon''] by Herbert Samuel Brown, Lieutenant, R.N.R., Port and Customs Officer, Mangalore. 1897. British Library Digital Collection.**''The China Sea Directory'' by the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, London.***''The China Sea Directory Volume I. Containing directions for the approaches to the China Sea and to Singapore, by the straits of Sunda, Banka, Gaspar, Carimata, Rhio, Varella, Durian, and Singapore'' by J. W. Reed , R N and J. W. King, R N. [ 1867] Google Books. [ 3rd edition 1886]**:[ ''The China Sea Directory Volume I Supplement ... Directions for Malacca Strait'']. Compiled by Staff Commander John Cumins Richards Hydrographic Office, Admiralty 1876. British Library Digital Collection.***[ ''The China Sea Directory Volume II. Containing directions for the navigation of the China Sea, between Singapore and Hong Kong''] by J. W. Reed , R N and J. W. King, R N. 1868. British Library Digital Collection. ***''China Sea Directory Volume III. The Coasts of China from Hong Kong to the Korea etc'' Edited by Captain Charles J Bulloch, RN. [ 1874] [ 2nd edition 1884]***''China Sea Directory Volume IV. Japan Islands etc'' by F W Jarrad, R N.[ 1873] [ 2nd edition 1884]**[ ''A directory Directory for the navigation Navigation of the Indian Archipelago, China, and Japan, from the straits of Malacca and Sunda, and the passages east of Java. To Canton, Shanghai, the Yellow Sea, and Japan, with descriptions of the winds, monsoons, and currents, and general instructions for the various channels, harbours, etc''] by Alexander George Findlay 2nd edition 1878**[ ''Malacca Strait Pilot : comprising strait and its northern approaches, Singapore Strait, and the West Coast of Sumatra''] 1946 Pdf download, Repositori Digital, National Library of Malaysia.*Seamen's Manuals, Seamanship, Signals etc**[ ''Signals and instructions, 1776-1794 with Addenda to Volume XXIX''] edited by Julian S Corbett. Publications of the Navy Records Society, Volume XXXV, 1908.**[ ''The Seaman's Manual : containing a treatise on practical seamanship, a dictionary of sea terms, customs and usages of the merchant service, laws relating to the practical duties of master and mariners''] by R H Dana 1841**[ ''Alphabetical code of signals for the use of Government pilot, surveying, light, buoy and other vessels, telegraph stations, etc''] by C W Warden 2nd edition 1868. Printed at Calcutta.**''A Manual of Elementary Seamanship'' by Commander D Wilson-Baker RNR [ 1896 edition], [ 5th edition revised, 1910].**[ ''Reed's Seamanship. Compiled for candidates preparing to pass the Marine Board examinations for certificates of competency as mates and masters. With ... diagrams''] Revised and enlarged by C M Swainston 22nd edition 1918. Published Sunderland [North-East England].**[ ''Standard Seamanship for the Merchant Service''] by Felix Riesenberg 1922, published in New York. With illustrations. For ease of reading the text online, select the one page option. Digitised microfilm.**[ ''Flags National and Mercantile…and House Flags and Funnels''] compiled by James Griffin 2nd edition, greatly enlarged 1891., from the collection of the Australian National Maritime Museum. [ 1883 version], [ 1891 version] but many flags are not in colour.**[ ''1919. Signal Letters of British Ships (formerly the British Code List) for the use of ships at sea, and for signal stations''] Prepared by Charles H Jones, Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen. Published for the Committee of Lloyd’s. Memorial University of Newfoundland Digital Archives Initiative (DAI). Direct link for [ pdf download]. [ Page xx] is titled "Ships belonging to the War Department..."*[ ''An English and Hindostanee Naval Dictionary of technical terms and sea phrases ...''] by the late Captain Thomas Roebuck, 4th Edition, revised and corrected by William Carmichael Smyth 1848 Google Books. Previously published in 1841 as part of another book [ "English and Hindostanee Naval Dictionary of Technical Terms, and Sea Phrases"], page 125 ''The Hindoostanee Interpreter: Containing the Rudiments of Grammar; an Extensive Vocabularly; and a Useful Collection of Dialogues. To which is Added a Naval Dictionary of Technical Terms, and Sea Phrases'' by William Carmichael-Smyth 1841 Google Books:[ ''A Laskari dictionary, or, Anglo-Indian vocabulary of nautical terms and phrases in English and Hindustani, chiefly in the corrupt jargon in use among the Laskars or Indian sailors''] A re-edited and revised edition by George Small, Missionary of the previous works by Roebuck and Smyth. 1882*[ ''Nautical terms & phrases : speak the language of the sea''] [USA] Marine Corps publication 1938*[ ''Handbook of information for the Colonies and India''] issued by the British India and Queensland Agency Co Ltd , Brisbane 1899-1900. Includes information about the British India Steam Navigation Company, Ld from page 118, digital pages 170-171, including routes and fares., from the collection of the Australian National Maritime Museum.
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