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View of Srinagar

This article covers Kashmir and other nearby countries of Central or High Asia.

Kashmir and Jammu was a Princely State which was created in 1846 after the 1st Sikh War. The British annexed the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan and tranferred it to Maharajah Gulab Singh for an indemnity payment. The capital of Kashmir was Srinagar.

Spelling variants

Modern name: Kashmir Variants: Cashmere

FIBIS resources

External links

  • Jammu and Kashmir Wikipedia (retrieved 16 June 2016)
  • "Heritage tag for 110-yr-old power project" by Majid Jahangir. The second oldest power project, the Mohura [Mohra] Power House located in the Uri area of north Kashmir’s Baramulla district, was commissioned in 1902. The Tribune September 1, 2012, Chandigarh, now an archived webpage. The Mohura Power House was situated midway between Uri and Baramulla.
  • "Returning to Kashmir, where our parents were shot in front of us" by Andrew Whitehead 16 November 2017 from Baramulla, Kashmir. BBC com. Lieutenant-Colonel Tom Dykes of the Sikh Regiment, and his wife Biddy, and four others were shot dead at St Joseph's Catholic Mission Hospital in the riverside town of Baramulla, Kashmir in October 1947.
  • 'Kashmir" by Kenneth Iain MacDonald. (library.utoronto.ca). In J. Speake (ed) (2003) The Literature of Travel and Exploration: An Encyclopedia. London: Routledge. Includes a Bibliography.
  • Perspectives of Early Photographers in Kashmir 1861-1920 by Hugh Rayner 21 Jan 2023. YouTube video presentation. The talk is illustrated with photographs taken primarily from the Hugh A. Rayner Collection of Early Indian Photography.

Historical books online

Gazetteer Of Kashmir And Ladak 1890 . Full title: Gazetteer of Kashmír and Ladak : together with routes in the territories of the Maharaja of Jamu and Kashmir compiled (for political and military reference) under the direction of the Quarter Master General in India in the Intelligence Branch 1890. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
The Kashmir Hand-book: a guide for visitors by John Ince, 3rd edition, revised and enlarged 1876. Pdf download, PAHAR Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. Archive.org mirror version.
Kashmir and Jammu: A Guide for Visitors by Joshua Duke, late Resident Surgeon in Kashmir. Thacker, Spink 1903. There was a later edition 1910. Cover title: Kashmir Handbook. Northwestern University Libraries Digitized Books [USA]. Catalogue entry. It is stated that it is practically a new book although based on Ince’s work (editions at the end of the 1860s, 1876 and 1888. Titles are The Káshmir Handbook: a guide for visitors by John Ince 1867, 1872-see above, 1876-see above; Ince's Kashmir Handbook : a guide for visitors, rewritten and much enlarged by Joshua Duke 1888). 1910 edition HathiTrust Digital Library, 1910 Google Books edition, both available only to North American etc viewers.
1918; 1927, 14th edition. Pdf downloads, Pahar- Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset.
1918 11th edition Archive.org version, mirror from Pahar; 1927 14th edition Archive.org version, 1933 15th edition Archive.org version revised by E F Neve, mirrors from Digital Library of India.
Narrative of a journey from Caunpoor to the Boorendo pass, in the Himalaya Mountains viâ Gwalior, Agra, Delhi, and Sirhind; by Major Sir William Lloyd. And Captain Alexander Gerard's account of an attempt to penetrate by Bekhur to Garoo, and the Lake Manasarowara: with a letter from the late J.G. Gerard, esq. detailing a visit to the Shatool and Boorendo passes, for the purpose of determining tte line of perpetual snow on the southern face of the Himalaya. Ed. by George Lloyd, published 1840. Volume I [1821-1822] Google Books. Volume II Captain Alexander Gerard’s Narrative 1821 Archive.org. Article about the book, page 421 The Monthly Review, From January To April Inclusive. 1840 Google Books.
Volume I, Volume II, Volume III Google Books
Volume I, Volume II, Volume III British Library Digital Collection. Images can be rotated.
Some sources give her names as Eleanor Louisa, Mrs Thomas Kibble. However, another source gives her as Julia Harvey, born 1825, the daughter of William Morton an engineer and his wife Juliana. [1] There was a marriage in Cawnpore 10 September 1845 of Julian Susan Morton , age 20, to Edward Harvey, Captain 10th Light Cavalry. He appears to be still alive in the late 1850s, so if this identification was correct, she did not undertake the journey due to widowhood. Article about the book by Christina Stoltz exploringtibet.wikischolars.columbia.edu
The Roof of the World : being a narrative of a journey over the high plateau of Tibet to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus Sources on Pamir by Lieutenant-Colonel T E Gordon, Honorary Aide-De-Camp to the Viceroy of India, lately attached to the Special Mission to Kashghar 1876 Archive.org. Includes Kashghar.
The Tourist's and Sportsman’s Guide to Kashmir and Ladak by A E Ward, Bengal Staff Corps 1896. Archive.org
The Hunza Nagar Expedition page 112 Reminiscences; the Wanderings of a Yachtsman and War Correspondent by E. F. Knight 1923. HathiTrust Digital Library. This book is also available Pahar-Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. If the download button does not display, locate under Books/Indian Subcontinent.
An Artist in the Himalayas by A D McCormick (Arthur David) 1895. Illustrated by sketches. Archive.org. Arthur David McCormick Wikipedia
A Summer in High Asia, being a record of sport and travel in Baltisan and Ladakh by Capt F E S Adair, late Rifle Brigade 1899. 2nd file images may be marginally better. Archive.org
Thirty years in Kashmir by Arthur Neve, Church Missionary Society 1913. Archive.org
Robert Clark of the Panjab : pioneer and missionary statesman by Henry Martyn Clark 1907 Archive.org. Includes chapters on the Cashmere Mission. Born 1825, Robert Clark joined the Church Missionary Society and was sent to India where he arrived in 1852 and was posted to Amritsar. He partially retired in 1898, completely in 1900, but died soon after.
Part 1 1933;60:5 377-392. Part 2 1933;60:6 456-461. Part 3 1933;61:1 61-70. Part 4 1933;61:2 133-144. Part 5 1933;61:4 304-309. Part 6 1933;61:5 379-393. Part 7 1933;61:6 ?-466: not online. Part 8 1934;62:2 142-150. Part 9 1934;62:3 224-233. Part 10 1934;62:5 365-376. Part 11 1934;62:6 430-440. Part 12 1934;63:2 127-134. Part 13 1934;63:3 193-206.
Through Deserts and Oases of Central Asia by Ella Sykes and Percy Sykes, 1920 Archive.org. Covers the brief period in which Percy Sykes relieved Macartney at Kashgar while the latter was on leave in 1916 but is really Percy's sister Ella Sykes’s travel account and says little about consular affairs.
  • Includes a Map, in two sections.
Chinese Central Asia by C P Skrine. Indian Civil Service, British Consul General in Chinese Turkistan 1922-1924. First published 1926 Archive.org. Index.Hathi Trust Digital Library version where images are rotatable. The Consulate was at Kashgar. Clarmont Percival Skrine Wikipedia.
Also see Norperforce for more about the Kashgar Mission during WW1 prior to 1922.
The Antique Land by Diana Shipton 1950. Archive.org Lending Library. A memoir by the wife of Eric Shipton, the last British consul in Kashgar before the consulate closed in 1947.
Historical Genesis of India’s Northern Frontier Problem by Robert A Huttenback 1961. Link to a pdf download, PAHAR - Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset (MCADD). If download button does not display, locate in Books/Indian Subcontinent or Direct link. Archive.org mirror version. Paper presented before the South Asia Colloquium, April 27, 1961.


  1. Snippet Search result from ‪In Their Own Words: British Women Writers and India, 1740-1857‬ by Rosemary Raza 2006 Google Books
  2. Page 318 British Autobiographies: An Annotated Bibliography of British Autobiographies Published Or Written Before 1951. Compiled by William Matthews originally published 1955 Google Books