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[North Persian Force]

Operations of the British forces in North Persia between 1918 & 1921
Account by Chris Woods.


To set the scene it might help to give a very brief history of the previous political situation in Persia. Loosely speaking, Persia was traditionally ruled by a Shah and an often weak central government in Tehran (the Majlis or National Assembly). The country is large and divided into districts, each with its own governor or Khan, who are often the local tribal chiefs and amongst whom there were endless shifting loyalties. Because of the lack of strong policing there was much banditry.

Britain and Russia had both been deeply involved in Persia for trade since the 16th century although Russia also had early expansionist policies, and by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Russia was seeking expansion into the Trans-Caspia, Trans-Caucasia and Azerbaijan, annexing lands previously controlled by Persia, and looking towards a port on the Persian Gulf, and also towards India via Persia and Afghanistan. The supposed interest of Russia in British India led to the endlessly Machiavellian shenanigans of ‘The Great Game’.

Britain’s interested was still in trade, latterly in exploring for oil, and for having Persia as a buffer for India. There was considerable piracy in the Persian Gulf and Britain was allowed by the countries bordering this sea to use its navy to suppress the pirates and to police the waters. This required some land forces and led to the Persian Government accepting the establishment of some British troops in military bases in southern Persia.

Persia then was effectively split in two with northern Persia under Russian influence and southern Persia under British influence

As the First World War approached, Germany sent many emissaries into Persia with a view to establishing loyalties towards Germany and also hoping to reach into Afghanistan for the same purposes. Turkey wanted to expand its empire into Mesopotamia and Persia where both allies also wanted a port in the Persian Gulf. The Persian Government wanted to remain neutral but the Shah, the Government, and the various Khans were independently swayed to different loyalties throughout the war.

The Persian Government had a Gendarmerie which was re-organised in 1911 by Swedish officers who later developed anti-Russian, and possibly pro-German sentiments while at the time being paid by H.M.G. In 1914 it consisted of about 36 Swedish officers and 6,000 mounted and dismounted Persians organised in 6 regiments, 3 of which had 2 battalions. Their duty was to maintain internal security and to collect the revenue.

1914 to 1920

In 1914 the Persian regular infantry numbered about 13,000, scattered and in many detachments, were generally unpaid, untrained, badly clothed and required to eke out a living by casual labour. The officers usually bought their appointments and were generally inefficient. The cavalry, numbering about 38,000 was organised entirely on tribal basis and apart from small numbers protecting some roads, were only called upon as required, and were unlikely to serve outside their own districts.

The Persian Cossack Brigade was created by Russians and in 1914 numbered about 3,500 with about 30 Russian officers and N.C.O.s. It consisted of:

  • 4 Regiments,
  • 4 Infantry Companies,
  • 1 Horse and 12 Mountain batteries,
  • 1 Machine Gun detachment.

All arms were modern, fairly well disciplined and drilled but with little field training and no transport. They were primarily created by the Russians as a political force, used by the Shah as a personal bodyguard and subordinate to him rather than the Government, but disliked by the Persian politicians for its Russian influence. The influence of these Persian Cossacks was more noticeable in northern Persia.

Initially the Turkish advances into Persia were resisted by Russian forces.

By 1915 the approaches being made by these German infiltrators caused H.M. Government to create an East Persia Cordon (force) based between Meshed and Seistan, initially to prevent the enemy entering Afghanistan which was then loyal to Britain and later to support our forces in Trans-caspia.

1916 - the South Persia Rifles were established with British and Indian, and a few Persian officers and N.C.O.s, and with mostly Indian and Persian troops who later showed a marked leaning towards Germany, with the result that the Persian element were little trusted by the British or the Persian Government as being loyal troops.

During combined Russo/British operations, the Russian Lt. Kolominiski was awarded the British Military Cross

1917 - The Russian Revolution had major repercussions in Persia and H.M. Government quickly realised it would have to replace the Russian forces in north Persia as they withdrew into their own country. This did not happen immediately. However, by the end of the year Britain established a need to secure the route from Mesopotamia to Enzeli, which was the major Persian port on the Caspian Sea, in order to stiffen Georgian and Armenian resistance to the Turks. General Dunsterville set off with initially a small force and by February 1918 his ‘Mission’ was based at Hamadan, about 180 miles to the west of Tehran on the route from Baghdad to Enzeli

1918 - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and Russian participation in the Great War ends. In June, the Armenian-Bolschevik alliance brought together Armenians and loyalist (White) Russians against the Turkish Caucasus army. By July, British forces in Hamadan were building up, and General Marshall in Baghdad extended his sphere of influence to include the whole of the Caspian littoral including Krasnovodsk and naval control of the Caspian and operations at Baku. He was also made responsible for the whole of N.W. Persia, the Bakhtiari, and Arabistan. General Bicharakoff was on his way to Baku with 1,500 troop and 4 British armoured cars.

July: 2,500 Janglis, with Germans & Austrians (ex PoWs released from captivity in Russia by the Bolsheviks), attacked the small Dunsterforce detachment at Rasht, but were severely beaten and this resulted in a peace treaty with their leader.

2nd August: a Commodore David Norris R.N. arrived unexpectedly at Dunsterville’s head quarters along with an initial 2 officers, 22 men, 1x 4” breach loader, 2x 12-pounder quick fire cannons and some naval launches in pieces. More officers and ratings were to follow and, after ‘acquiring’ some field artillery, Norris set about arming some merchant ships and creating a fleet to support Denekin’s White Russian fleet on the Caspian.

During August, after their defeat, the Jangalis switched allegiance from the Germans to the British and Dunsterville offered to support their idea of independence, later….

16th August: Dunsterville left Enzeli with ‘Dunsterforce’ for Baku to support the Bolshevik Russians and Armenians against the advancing Turkish army. For various reasons, this well documented action was, on the face of it, unsuccessful, with Dunsterforce retreating back to Enzeli by 14th September. But, from a wider point of view, their defence of the town caused two much needed divisions of the Turkish army to be diverted from Palestine.

‘Dunsterforce’ was disbanded but some officers and troops transferred into the larger North Persia force or NORPERFORCE, including 3 of Dunsterville’s famous armoured cars.

16th Sept. Maj. Gen. W.M. Thomson appointed commander of Norperforce, with instructions to stop the Bolsheviks reaching the High Plateau. Gen. Dunsterville was recalled to India.

Constitution of NORPERFORCE 16th Sept 1918

  • 14th Hussars; 1 section 15th Machine Gun Squadron;
  • 21st Mountain Battery;
  • 1 section 72nd Field Company, R.E.;
  • 36th Infantry Brigade (1/4th. Hampshire, 1/2nd Gurkhas, with 36th Sikhs and 1/6th Gurkhas under orders from Mesopotamia);
  • 39th Infantry Brigade (9th Royal Warwickshire, 7th Gloucestershire, 9th Worcestershire and 7th North Staffordshire);
  • 6th Light Armoured Motor Battery (less 1 section) and Dunsterforce Armoured Car Brigade.

By 25th September, the whole Turkish army in Palestine & Syria was in disarray; their army in Mesopotamia was ready to evacuate, Arabia was lost to them - with the fall of Medina imminent - and they were preparing to retreat from the Balkans. The Turkish evacuation of Persia was expected daily.

Commodore Norris had instructions to “take immediate control of the Caspian, by drastic measures if necessary”, and he continued to increase his fleet of armed merchant vessels. The Caspian fleet under General Bicharakoff was at that time available for sale but while inactive was of little interest to Norris.

3rd October: a reconnaissance by NORPERFORCE showed that the Turkish force in Mianeh area had decreased

Distribution of the Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force on 19th October 1918 North Persia Force

Headquarters at Kazvin

  • 36th Infantry Brigade
  • 39th Infantry Brigade
  • 13th Brigade, R.F.A. (2nd, 8th, 44th, and C/69th Battery) = 22 guns
  • 21st Mountain Battery = 6 guns
  • 72nd Field Company, R.E.
  • “A”, “B” and “C” Squadrons, Dunsterforce Armoured Car Brigade.
  • North Persia Force Signal Company.
  • No 20 Combined Field Ambulance.
  • No 40 British Field Ambulance.
  • Dunsterforce Armoured Car Brigade Medical Unit.
  • “L” Company, Supply and Transport


  • 1 flight, 30th Squadron, R.A.F.
  • 1 ½ flights, 72nd Squadron, R.A.F.
  • 1 wagon & 1 pack station, 1st Wireless Signal Squadron.
  • 3 packs & 4 lorry stations, 2nd Wireless Signal Squadron.
  • 1 station, No 5 Wireless Signal Squadron R.E.
  • 6th Light Armoured Motor Battery (less 1 section).
  • 15th Light Armoured Motor Battery.
  • Detachment, No. 16 Casualty Clearing Station.
  • Detachment, No. 33 Motor Ambulance Convoy.

24th October: Constantinople ordered the evacuation of Persia. Norperforce carried out continued reconnaissance and some aeroplane attacks, but did not force the retreat. 30th October: Turkey signs an Armistice with the Allies. However, with the imminent dissolution of its empire, some Turkish forces are instructed to be absorbed into local allied forces with a view to maintaining some semblance of their old empire to the east of Turkey.

By the end of this month, Norperforce and the R.N. have established fitting-out bases for their expanding fleet at Enzeli and Krasnovosdk.

A British force operating initially from Meshed in north east Persia, but with support through Krasnovodsk, was fighting in support of the Trans-Caspian Government against encroachments by the Bolsheviks.

A certain Reza Khan of the Persian Cossacks – then referred to as Brigadier General, was campaigning in the Kashan area against bandits.

1st November 1918: G.O.C. Norperforce: Major General W. M. Thomson. G.O.C. 36th Infantry Brigade Brig-Gen H.F.B Champain

11th November: Germany signs unconditional surrender

17th November: Gen. Thomson re-occupies Baku with Norperforce, supported by Gen. Bicherakov and an armed British flotilla.

November: Royal Navy, with a detachment of 160 Royal marines, set up coastal guns at Petrovsk (Machachkala], 160 miles north of Baku.

December: Royal Navy flotilla prevents the Bolsheviks gaining an ice-free port in the Caspian. The naval flotilla, initially flying the Imperial Russian ensign, consisted of ‘VENTURE’, ‘FOX’, ‘EMILE NOBLE’, ‘ALLA VARDI’, ‘SALVA’ & ‘BIBI-ABAT’, each of which had a R.M.A./R.M.L.I. detachment consisting of 11 marines commanded by sergeants or corporals. Other ships had British gunners: ‘KRUGER’ with R.F.A. guns, and ‘ZORASTER’ & ‘ASIA’ with R.N. seamen gunners. R.N. crews operated the flotilla, which also included the ‘WINDSOR CASTLE’, the improvised seaplane carrier ‘ORLINOCK’, and the ‘SERGEI’ which carried 12 R.N. Coastal Motor Boats.

1918/19 - During this winter, a major influenza pandemic killed 21 million worldwide and severely incapacitated the British and Indian troops, although deaths amongst the Persians was proportionally much higher

By the end of 1918, H.M. Government was spending £30,000,000 per annum in Persia, and there were strong moves to withdraw our troops, not only by our Government, but also by the Government of India which was providing much of the army personnel.

Military operations and policy in Persia were run from Mesopotamia by London where it involved the India Office, the Foreign Office and the War office, and also with major input from the Government of India, all of which led to much disagreement and delay in finalising policies. Proposals for an Anglo-Persian agreement were sought, but it was not until August 1919 that they were agreed and signed.

1919 - January: Southern Persia. The Bushire Force was engaged in clearing up local rebellions and making the Bushire-Shiraz road secure.

Several Bolshevik attacks on the R.M. detachment in Petrovsk were repelled after street fighting.

The Peace Conference opened at Versailles but, as a neutral country, Persia was not invited to attend. Britain agrees to represent their interests.

19th February: The Afghan leader assassinated and replaced by his son who declares a jihad and calls on Indian Muslims to rise against the British, resulting in the 3rd Anglo-Afghan war. But the Afghans had misread the situation in India and were defeated. This resulted in the Treaty of Rawalpindi (8th Aug.) which granted independence to Afghanistan, and the cessation of subsidies from Britain to Afghanistan

March: The Caspian flotilla flies the White Ensign.

31st March: The British ‘Malleson Mission’ to Trans-Caspia withdraws through lack of local support. The Trans-Caspian government collapses

21st May: An engagement between British and Bolshevik ships off Alexandrovsk (Fort Shevchenko), with the support of 40 R.A.F. planes, resulted in 9 enemy ships being sunk and the rest being kept back in Astrakhan on the Volga.

9th August: The Anglo-Persian Agreement was signed by the Persian Cabinet, with the support of the young Shah. Unfortunately, a subsequent collapse of the signatory of the Persian Cabinet resulted in this agreement being put into suspension where it remained until the palace coup in 1921.

19th August: The British flotilla was handed over to the White Russians.

2nd September: Royal Marines evacuated Petrovsk, but British troops continued to support covert operation in southern Russia.

1920 - March: Norperforce occupied Resht and subdues a revolt by the Janglis who had hoped for independence

20th March: Petrovsk falls - General Denekin’s Volunteer Army is defeated by the Bolsheviks. Denekin and his troops sought shelter in Enzeli and handed over his fleet to the British. Denekin, leader of the White Russian forces, handed over command of the south Russian White forces to Gen. Peter Wrantel.

H.M. Government advised that the Persia situation causes ‘much anxiety’ and planned, with Churchill’s agreement, a substantial garrison in Mesopotamia with the ability to support Norperforce if the Bolsheviks march on Persia

28th April: The Bolsheviks captured Baku

18th May: The Bolsheviks land at Enzeli and seize the White Russian fleet. The Persian Cossacks withdrew. Brief skirmishes with Gurkha troops of Norperforce. Then Maj. Gen. H.B.F. Bateman-Champain, having taken over the command of Norperforce, ordered the withdrawal of his local forces with the Persian Cossacks to Kazvin [Qazin]. Gen. Bateman-Champain had asked for but received no guidance in how to deal with this situation, and decided that it was better to withdraw than create a diplomatic incident. Retrospectively, this was considered a major error of judgement.

The Bolsheviks established the ‘Soviet Republic of Gilan’ which remained in power until October 1921.

The Persian National Democrats considered the British their enemy. The Bolsheviks attempted to subvert them but the National Democrats were routed by Norperforce, with the support of the Persian Cossacks.

23rd August: Maj. Gen Sir Edmund Ironside relieved Bateman-Champain of command of Norperforce. Bateman-Champain goes into retirement.

Ironside had orders to prepare for the withdrawal of all British forces from Persia. He had approximately 6,000 British & Indian troops with the main body at Manjil, holding the head of the pass to prevent further advances by the Bolsheviks. There is also a battalion at Zanjin, some troops patrolling the Manjeel-Kazvin road, with the remainder at Kazvin. Ironside found that his communications division was able to tap into the wireless and telephone communications of the Bolsheviks who, unable to trust their own codes, transmitted all messages in the clear, including operational messages.

The Persian Cossacks did battle with the Bolsheviks but were defeated. Ironside helped to re-organise the battalion for future operations and realised the need to remove the Russian officer and N.C.O. element to allow the battalion to be a solely Persian force. October: Persian Cossacks again did battle with the Bolsheviks at Rasht, but were defeated and withdrew. With the agreement of the Shah, the 100 Russian officers and NCOs were tricked by Ironside into being detached from the Persians of the Persian Cossacks during this withdrawal through the Manjeel Pass. Ironside proceeded to re-equip the remaining all-Persian Cossack Brigade, supported payment of their salary, and selected Col. Reza Khan as their commander.

Disposition of Norperforce (Gen Ironside) 26th Sept 1920

  • ‘A’ Batt R.H.A. (Chestnut troop)
  • The Guides Cavalry
  • 2 Battery, Indian Mountain Artillery.
  • Armoured Car Company (16 cars)
  • 1st Battalion Royal Berkshire Regiment
  • 2nd Battalion York & Lancs. Regiment
  • 2nd Gurkha
  • 122nd Rejput Regiment
  • 42nd Deoli Regiment
  • Flight of RAF
  • (plus a specialist unit under an Artillery Lieutenant who intercepted wireless messages, and carried out taps of Bolshevik telephone calls)

Total of 6,000 British & Indian troops.

The main body was at Manjeel, holding the head of the Pass, preventing advance by Bolshevik forces.

A battalion was stationed at Zanjin. Some troops were patrolling the Manjeel-Qazvin Road, The remainder were at Qazvin.

26th October: Norperforce down to 3,600 men

14th November: The White Russians were finally defeated and the Russian counter-revolution was over: the Bolsheviks are unopposed.

December: Ironside ordered to complete withdrawal of Norperforce within 4 months but was severely hampered by extreme winter weather (40ft. snow drifts)

The Bolsheviks were defeated by the Deoli Regiment when they attacked the ‘iron bridge’ on the Siah road. This was as a result of Ironside having had a week’s notice of their intent through telephone intercepts of the Bolshevik’s plans.

1921 to 1925

30th January: The Bolsheviks were defeated at Menjel by Gurkhas and a troop of Guides cavalry

14th February: Ironside handed over command of Norperforce to Maj. Gen. Sir George Cory

20th - 21st February: There was an almost bloodless palace coup by Reza Khan with his Cossacks (possibly supported ‘unofficially’ by Perfidious Albion!)

25th February: The Soviet-Persian Treaty: All Russian troops were to leave Persia; Lenin granted equal access to the Caspian Sea.

16th March: An Anglo-Persian Trade agreement.

21st April Norperforce was completely withdrawn into Mesopotamia, leaving all small-arms, artillery, ammunition and draft animals to the Persian Cossacks.

There is a little further Persian history after Norperforce left the scene, which may also be of interest:

21st October: The Persian Cossacks suppressed a revolt in Gilan and overthrew the Soviet Republic in Gilan. They also re-established control over southern (Persian) Azerbaijan.

1923 - Reza Khan Pahlevi was appointed Prime Minister

1924 - Reza Khan deposed the young Shah Ahmed Mirza and proclaimed himself Shah

1925 - Shah Reza Khan changed his name to Reza Khan Pahlevi


August: Soviet & British troops entered Persia (Iran)

September: Reza Khan Pahlevi abdicated in favour of his pro-British son Mohammed Reza Pahlevi


16th January: Mohammed Reza Pahlevi appointed his Prime Minister as Regent, and departed Iran for Egypt

1st February: Shiite Muslim leader Ayatollah Khomeini entered Iran as the spiritual leader of the country.


Sources are many and varied, mostly from the internet, however, one book which has been of particular importance is the volume of the British government’s ‘Official History of the War’ directly concerning Persia. This was written by Brig’d. Gen. F. J. Moberly and published in 1929, and is a remarkable report, apparently unbiased, digging deeply into the politics as well as the military aspects of British operations in and from Persia. What is perhaps of great interest is that when it was first published, it was classified ‘Confidential’, many copies were destroyed before they left the printer, and it was not de-classified and made available to the public until 1987 because of the sensitivity of the politics during, after and partly as a result of some of these operations:

Operations in Persia 1914-1919 F. J. Moberly. H.M.S.O. 1987 ISBN 0 11 290453 x Complete with fine maps and some photographs. Both the 1929 and 1987 editions are available at the British Library.

Moberly also wrote the 4 volumes of H.M.G.’s ‘Official History of the War’ dealing with Mesopotamia which has a full report on ‘Dunsterforce’ and some references to 'Norperforce’ The Campaign In Mesopotamia 1914-1918 published over several years up to 1927.
End of the account by Chris Woods.
The author Chris Woods may be contacted by email:

Further notes

  • The incorrect spelling Norderforce has been seen.[1]
  • Operations in Persia 1914-1919 and The Campaign In Mesopotamia 1914-1918 are available online, refer Historical books online, below.
  • High Road to Command. The Diaries of Major-General Sir Edmund Ironside 1920-22, ed. Lord Ironside, London, 1972 is available at the British Library UIN: BLL01001820215. Ironside was Commander of Norperforce from mid-late 1920 (both August and October dates have been seen). Ironside, William Edmund

The British Salonika Force and the Army of the Black Sea

Immediately after the Armistice with Turkey orders had been issued for British troops to move to the Caucasus, due to the situation there. Troops were sent from the nearest British forces available, from North Persia [Mesopotamia Force], and from the Salonika Force.[2] In January 1919 it was decided all British troops in the Caucasus should be under one command, which at that time was still called the British Salonika Force, subsequently known as the Army of the Black Sea,[3] which was tasked with ensuring that Turkey complied with the terms of the Armistice.

Medals to Indian Army soldiers that are classified as 'Salonika Medals' were mostly awarded for actions by the British Army of the Black Sea against Turkish nationalists, emerging Communist forces or bandits and brigands in Anatolia, the Caucasus and Transcaspia.[4]


Constantinople was the Headquarters of the Army of the Black Sea.

An Official History was written about Constantinople titled The Occupation of Constantinople 1918–1923 by Brigadier-General J. E. Edmonds. Originally written in 1944, it was not finally published until 2010 by Imperial War Museum/Naval&Military Press.[5] Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01019675592. Also see the online account below, by General Sir Charles Harington, Commander of the British Forces in Turkey from October 1920.

A postal history and associated military history of the British and Indian occupation forces is also available, The Postal History of the Army of the Black Sea : 1918 - 1923 by John Slingsby.[6] Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01013055463

The naval history is included in The Mediterranean Fleet, 1919–1929 edited by Paul Halpern 2011. A publication of the Navy Records Society Volume 158, (with online access for members), also available at the British Library UIN: BLL01015816949 . Sample pages, Google Books.

  • HMS Julius was the administrative name given to a naval unit set up in Constantinople that was responsible for running harbour service craft (under the direction of the RN Captain of the Port). This arrangement followed the signing of the Treaty of Mudros (which ended Ottoman participation in the Great War)[7]

Some marriage records for British Army personnel during this period are held by the UK General Register Office. There is an Index of records known as "GRO Army Marriages Within British Lines 1914-1925", part of the British Army Overseas Indexes. It also appears there may be some unindexed marriage records. See Chaplains Returns for details.

The 89th Punjab Regiment, after serving in the Caucasus, then served at Constantinople with the Army of the Black Sea.[8]

British military personnel (Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air force) in Constantinople, the Mediterranean and Turkey appear in the 1921 England and Wales Census, taken on 19 June 1921. See British Army - 1921 England and Wales Census.

Records at the National Archives, Kew


War Diaries

War Diaries at the National Archives, Kew include the category "Part V: Salonika, Macedonia, Turkey Black Sea, Caucasus and South Russia ". The record series ranges from WO 95/4756 to WO 95/4964, the latter being Occupation force in Turkey 1922 Sept 1 - 1923 Aug 31. Includes entries such as Black Sea, or Black Sea Troops, WO 95/4952- 4954.
This series of War Diaries does not appear to have been digitised (at 2017/3).


Also see

External links

  • Transcaucasia. Wikipedia. Also known as Trans-Caucasus or Transcaucasus, or Southern Caucasia or the South Caucasus. Baku (Wikipedia) is the largest city of Azerbaijan and in the region.
Trans-Caspia. Wikipedia. Now known as Turkmenistan. Located east across the Caspian Sea from Transcaucasia.
Part 2 "1918 - Azerbaijan at War" by Alum Bati Visions of Azerbaijan September-October 2015, archived. With a slide show of photographs.
"Biplane Battle: Flying Against the Bolsheviks During Russia’s Civil War" by Derek O'Connor. Originally published in the September 2007 issue of Aviation History Magazine. Four Sopwith Camels of B Flight, No. 47 Squadron, Royal Air Force,
Use the Levantine Heritage website Search to locate other information within this website, which perhaps may not be accessible from the main categories, and is only locatable through the Search.
Haidarpasha explosion on 6 September 1917 when the armoury exploded, possibly due to a clandestine operation conducted by a [British] Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) volunteer agent.
"1920: British Fleet at Ismid" 12/02/13 and "1920: Ismid-Black Sea Line and Rebels" 12/02/13. Scroll down page 11; "Turkish Actions of USS Sands" 01/10/14 and "RHN Averoff Fighing Turks" 01/10/14 scroll down page 15; "Averoff's Deployment to Constantinople" 01/10/14, "Turkish Action of USS McFarland" 01/10/14 and "Turkish Action of USS Sturtevant" 01/10/14 scroll down page 16.
  • Photographs: J.A. Sadler Collection, Royal Air Force Museum Collection on They are from a series of albums, which are believed to have been produced and compiled by Gp Capt John Archer Sadler RAF, and which date from 1919. Include photographs captioned "Ark Royal", Dardanelles, 1922-23. HMS Ark Royal was a seaplane carrier and it appears Gp Capt Sadler was then in a Seaplane Squadron. In addition to aerial photographs of Constantinople, includes (as examples) HMS "Ark Royal", Dardanelles, 1922-23, My Fairey and crew aboard HMS "Ark Royal" 1922, RAF base, San Stefano, Constantinople undated but likely to be 1922-3. San Stefano (now Yeşilköy ) is a part of the Bakırköy district of Istanbul.
  • Ernest Hemingway Articles. Some of the articles (scroll down) written by the author Ernest Hemingway who was in Constantinople as a journalist late 1922.
  • Listen to the 1975 interview, with transcript 1 and transcript 2, with Colonel J.S. Lord, Indian Army Officer, 124th Baluchistan Infantry. Colonel Lord tells of his experiences of the Army in India and Persia during the First World War, including an anecdote of the infamous influenza. He refers to actions around Bushire which involved Wassmuss, the “German Lawrence” [who was the German Consul at Bushire], see "Where Is Wassmuss ?" Auckland Star, 28 June 1919.
  • Listen to the 1979 Audio recording by Mrs Agnes Moffatt, wife of an officer 1st Kumaon Rifles with Typescript Part 1. She first joined her husband in Constantinople in 1921 where the Battalion was guard to the Allied Headquarters.
  • Interviews. Imperial War Museums
    • Listen to the 1990 interview with Henley Charles Claxton British seaman. Includes service aboard HMS Swallow in Black Sea, 1919-1920. Reels 4-6. Catalogue number 11945. In most of the reels there is a delay before the sound commences, of up to approximately one minute.
    • Listen to the undated recollections of George Michael Clarkson, Royal Navy 1915-1937, includes HMS Iron Duke in Black Sea, 1919, Reel 2. Imperial War Museums Sound Catalogue number 21283. There is also another series on the IWM website catalogue number 679, consisting of 48 reels recorded by Clarkson in 1975.
    • Listen to the 1984 interview with William Frank Howard British boy seaman and seaman served aboard HMS St George in Mediterranean based at Imbros and Salonika, Greece, 1916-1918; served in Greece and Turkey, 1922-1924. Catalogue number 8275.
    • Listen to the 1979 interview with Jack Briscoe Masefield British officer served with 7th Bn Gloucestershire Regt at Gallipoli, 1915, and in Mesopotamia and Persia, 1917-1918; served with South Russian Mission, 1919-1921; served with Allied Police Commission in Turkey, 1921-1923. Catalogue number 4609.
    • Listen to the 1983 Interview with Lendon Fitz Payne British NCO served with Royal Engineers Signal Service and Royal Corps of Signals on Western Front and in Russia, 1915-1923. Includes posting to Constantinople. Catalogue number 7256.
  • Bibliography of Memoirs and other First Hand accounts page 284 The Russian Revolution and Civil War 1917-1921: An Annotated Bibliography by Jonathan Smele Google Books.
  • Haidar Pasha Cemetery, located in a suburb of Istanbul. ( Also see Maps below, in particular the map of the Skutari area). Includes a Memorial and Addenda panel erected to commemorate Commonwealth servicemen of the First World War who died fighting in South Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, and in post Armistice operations in Russia and Transcaucasia, whose graves are not known, together with others buried in cemeteries in South Russia and Transcaucasia whose graves can no longer be maintained. Those commemorated include Lieut.-Colonel Geoffrey Davis Pike, head of the ‘Caucasus Military Agency’, killed, probably executed, by the Bolsheviks in August 1918. [9]
  • Indians in the Middle East: The forgotten soldiers of the First World War by Vedika Kant. Mentions Indian Soldiers buried in Istanbul’s Haydarpaşa English Cemetery. Although the text says these are POW deaths, a comment by Adil dated August 17, 2015 says “The Haidar Pasha Memorial largely commemorates Indians who died post the Armistice and most casualties are from the Army of the Black Sea”. LSE South Asia Centre, London School of Economics.
  • "British Policy on the Fate of Constantinople and the Allied Occupation of the City on March 16 [1920] by Dr. Neşe Özden. Scroll down to English version. Ataturk Research, now archived.
  • Tanks In Russia During The Civil War Tank Museum news item 24th March 2017, archived. The Tank Museum, Bovington, Dorset contains a a collection of documents and photographs belonging to Major H S Sayer, relating to the Tank Detachment sent, for training purposes, by Britain during the Russian Civil War, which set up base at Taganrog, South Russia in 1919. Includes a Nominal Roll of Officers, NCO's and Men of the South Russian Tank Detachment.
  • "Churchill's Private War: British Intervention in South Russia, 1919" An extract from Stamping Out the Virus: Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1918-1920 by Perry Moore 2002. Google Books ( sample pages only). Original source for Holman's report not available, but possibly TNA WO 33/971 Final report of the British Military Mission, South Russia by Major-General Sir H.C. Holman.
  • British Military Operations 1919-1939 by Graham Watson is a selection of orders of battle of various operations carried out by the British Army. Scroll to the sections "South Russia & Black Sea 1919" and "Turkey 1922"., now archived.


Historical books online

Official histories, despatches and reports

Also available in a reprint edition,[10] which in turn is available online on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3 as Operations in Persia (located in Military Books-located by the Search/Iran).
Despatch from Major General Sir George F MacMunn, officiating Commander-In Chief, Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, describing events since 1st January 1919, including North Persia, and Southern and Cental Kurdistan, for various operations between March and September 1919. The London Gazette 5 March 1920 Supplement: 31813 Page: 2877. The actual pages are dated 8 March 1920.
Four Despatches from the Commander-In Chief, Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force: Despatch No 1, dated 17th January 1920 from MacMunn, covering the period November 1919 to 17th January 1920. Despatches from Lieutenant-General Haldane, covering the periods: 18th January 1920 to 30th June 1920 in Mesopotamia and NW Persia.[Despatch No 2 dated 23rd August 1920. Page 5323]; 1st July 1820 to 19th October 1920 [Despatch No 3 dated 8th November 1920, page 5329] Despatch No 4, dated 8th February 1921 (page 5347) The London Gazette 1 July 1921 Issue: 32379 Page:5321.
A Handbook of Asia Minor Volume 1 C.B. 847A, Volume 2 C.B 847B, Volume 3 Part 2 C.B.847C(2), Volume 3 Part 3 C.B. 847c, published c 1919 by [Great Britain] Naval Staff Intelligence Department. Missing Volume 4 Part 2, the other Parts were not published. Note, at least for Volume 1, maps at the end of the book are not included.
Turkey Volume 1 B.R.507 Geographical Hand Book Series April 1942 and Turkey Volume 2 B.R 507A Geographical Hand Book Series March 1943 by [Great Britain] Naval Intelligence Division.
  • Series Peace Handbooks: Handbooks prepared under the direction of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office: No 54 Caucasia HMSO 1920. HathiTrust Digital Library. version
  • Turkish Official Histories, Turkish language: Birinci Dünya Harbi Serisi / World War I Series from Ministry of National Defence, Republic of Turkey. Includes maps. If required use Google Translate for the website (not histories). In addition to the Army histories, there is also item 15 Birinci Dünya Harbi, Türk Hava Harekatı C.9 Air Operations, and item 16 Birinci Dünya Harbinde Türk Harbi, Deniz Harekâtı C.8 Naval Operations. Although in respect of another theatre of war the following article discusses the scope and extent of some of the Turkish Official Histories from page 49 "Wasp or Mosquito? The Arab Revolt in Turkish Military History" by Edward J. Erickson British Journal for Military History, Volume 4, Issue 3, July 2018, pages 44-59. A download to your computer.

General histories etc

"Russia in Ruins" Chapter VIII, page 155 A Wanderer's Log: being some memories of travel in India, the Far East, Russia, the Mediterranean & elsewhere by C. E. Bechhofer 1922
"The British Flag on the Caspian: A Side-Show of the Great War" by Percy Sykes Foreign Affairs Vol. 2, No. 2 (Dec. 15, 1923), pp. 282-294. Read online for free, but first you must register, and limits apply, see Miscellaneous tips.


Regimental and personal accounts, Army

The Diaries of General Lionel Dunsterville 1911-1922 from Primary Sources
Stalky's Reminiscences by L. C. Dunsterville published c 1928. version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
For other Indian Army regimental histories, see The Guides (Cavalry); 2nd King Edward's Own Goorkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles); 2nd Bombay Pioneers; Bombay Sappers and Miners.
  • "The Caucasus" page 503 ‪Worcestershire Regiment in the Great War by Capt H. FitzM. Stacke 1928
  • The History and War Records of the Surrey Yeomanry (Queen Mary's Regt.) 1797-1928 by E. D. Harrison-Ainsworth 1928. Includes Russia (Caucasus).
  • With the Persian Expedition by Martin Henry Donohoe 1919 The author was a Special Service Officer with 'Dunsterforce'. There was a reprint edition c 2020 with the title The Race to Tabriz.
  • Stalky’s Forlorn Hope by Captain Stanley George Savige (Australian Army Officer) 1919. National Library of Australia. It is also available as a transcription from Chapter 1 from the website "Desert Column: The Australian Light Horse Studies Centre". (Also on the archived website First AIF. Includes the Foreword). Lionel Dunsterville was the model for Kipling's character 'Stalky'.
  • "Further Adventures of the Armoured Cars: Persia and Baku" pages 285-297 Blackwood's Magazine Volume 205, January-June 1919. The author elsewhere is stated to be A. H. Ruston, who was Temp. Major, Machine Gun Corps (Motor). Allpress (Alpress/Alpres) Harold Ruston was awarded the DSO for actions near Baku on 26 August 1918, London Gazette entry.
    • Ruston had previously been Temp. Lieut-Cdr R.N.V.R, Naval Armoured Car Squadron, during the Russian retreat in Galicia in July and August 1917. Ruston’s Naval commission was terminated 31.1.18 when he transferred to the Army [11], along with other personnel. The Dunsterforce Armoured Car Brigade (known as the Duncars) was formed at the end of January 1918 from personnel from the Russian Armoured Car Division who were transferred from the Admiralty (or, more precisely, the Royal Marines, under whose control they were from November 1917) to the Machine Gun Corps (Motors). Duncars were equipped with a mixture of Austin armoured cars and Ford Model T vans armed with machine guns.[12][13][14][15]
    • Report on R.N.A.S. Armoured Car Squadron under Commander O. Locker-Lampson ... serving in Russia. [Signed: Nugent M. Clougher.] : Russian Government Committee in London, 1918. British Library Digital. (British Library Digital at 2022/01/31 has access problems and the following temporary access link may be required). Mainly concerns the establishment of the unit, and payment matters, with only brief operational details. The unit was in Galicia June and July 1917 covering the retreat, then left in September 1917 for its winter base at Kursk where it remained until 18 January 1918, when it returned to England.
    • "Ten Months with the Russian Army" by Surgeon W H King R.N pages 193-203, Volume 4, 1918, Journal of the Royal Navy Medical Service. With R N A S Armoured Cars from 15 October 1916 to 20 August 1917, when he arrived back in England with a group of sick and wounded.
    • Details of the British Armoured Car Force, RNAS also known as the Russian Armoured Car Squadron: "The Navy in Roumania" page 187 The Navy Everywhere by Conrad Cato [real name Cyril Cox RNR] 1919
    • "With British Armoured-Cars in the Caucasus" told by a Petty-Officer page 587 and page 590 The War Illustrated, 3rd February, 1917. Transcribed version, archived with photographs from an earlier edition. These photographs were republished in pages 2720-2721, Volume 8 The War Illustrated Album de Luxe
    • “With the British Armoured Cars in Russia” as told by Chief Petty Officer Checkley pages 375-385 and pages 472-479 The Wide World Magazine. Adventure - Travel - Sport. Volume 40 1917-1918.
  • With Horse and Morse in Mesopotamia: The Story of Anzacs in Asia edited by Keast Burke 1927. Includes Pack Wireless Signal Troops from Australia and New Zealand, including Dunsterforce and the Campaign in Kurdistan 1919. Also includes nominal rolls at the back of the book. has two digital files/series, the first contains some digital pages which are of very poor quality. The second series of files from Pages 1-70, pages 71-132; pages 133-206 . Also see Maps above, for a better quality map from this book.
  • The Diary of Lieut.-Colonel John Weightman Warden 1918-1919 - France, Dunsterforce, Vladivostok. From 1918 Documents Transcribed from the Public Archives of Canada
    • "I call them Dunsterfarce & Napoofarce... Nobody with ability to organize." [October 20th, 1918]
  • "Australians In Transcaucasus" being extracts from "Australians in Mesopotamia" Appendix No.5. The Australian Imperial Force In France During the Main German Offensive. Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Volume V by C W Bean, pages 703-784. Complete version "Australians in Mesopotamia", pages 703-784
  • "The Dunsterforce Expedition" Appendix V, pages 536-541 The Official History of the New Zealand Rifle Brigade compiled by Lieut.-Col. W. S. Austin 1924. New Zealand Electronic Text Collection, Victoria University of Wellington Library.
  • From the Gulf to the Caspian : being the souvenir booklet of the 33rd. Motor Ambulance Convoy which served in Mesopotamia and North Persia, 1916 to 1919 written by various members of the unit who remain anonymous. [1920?] State Library of Victoria. This Unit consisted of Army Service Corps personnel, together with Royal Army Medical Corps personnel.
  • "Caucasian Excursion" by Captain L G H Girling pages 297-307 USI [United Service Institution Of India] Journal Vol. LXX 1940. With 27th Division to Batum (now Batumi), and Tiflis, Georgia from October 1918.
  • The British "Intervention" in Transcaspia 1918 -1919 by C H Ellis 1963. This is the USA title. Original UK title The Transcaspian Episode. 1918-1919 (1963). The author was part of the Malleson Mission, 'Malmiss'
"The Battle of Dushak" 1918 pages 126-127 Turkmenistan by Paul Brummell 2005 Google Books. The 1/19th Punjabi Infantry and the 28th Light Cavalry took part in this action, part of the Malleson Mission in Transcaspia.
  • "The British Military Mission to Turkestan 1918-1920" by Major General Sir Wilfred Malleson Journal of the Central Asian Society Volume 9 1922 No 2 pp 96-110.
  • "Military Operations in Transcaspia 1918-1919" by Lt.Col.D E Knollys Journal of the Central Asian Society Volume 13, 1926 no 2 pp88-110. The author was in charge of the 19th Punjabi Regiment.
  • Previously available online, perhaps may become available again, issues of Reveille published by The Returned and Services League of Australia New South Wales Branch.
    • "Epic of the Dunsterforce" Reveille December 1931. Contains List of AIF members (Officer and NCOs) of Dunsterforce. Pages 3-4, page 32.
    • "East Persia: Aussie’s Experiences" Reveille July 1932, page 21.
    • "East Persia and the War: An Australian’s Experiences". No 2 by RH Bedingfield Reveille April 1935 pages 48-49
    • "With the Dunsterforce Irregulars" by Captain E W Latchford Reveille, Volume 5, No 11 to Volume 6, No 3, August-November 1932. August, page 25, pages 74-76, page 80; September page 15, page 32; October, page 15, page 25 (scroll down); November, page 6. The Irregulars were Armenians, Assyrians etc, and Captain Latchford was from the Australian Army.
    • "Memories of the "Hush Hush" Force" by Captain Tom Kelsey, Connaught Rangers and Dunsterforce. Reveille, Volume 9, Nos 8-11, April-July 1936. April, page 36, continuing on page 38 (RHS of page), 39 (bottom of page); May, page 18, 19; June, page 18, 19; July, page 18.

Intelligence and diplomatic missions

  • The German spy Wassmuss in South Persia page 200 Chapter V, The Secret Corps : a Tale of "Intelligence" on all Fronts by Captain Ferdinand Tuohy 1920
  • "Bolshevism as I saw it at Tashkent in 1918" by Sir George MacArtney Journal of the Central Asian Society Volume 7 1920 Nos 2-3 pp 42-58. Includes comments on the missions of Colonel Bailey and Captain Blacker (see following).
  • Mission To Tashkent by [Lt Col] F M Bailey 1946. version, mirror from Digital Library of India. ….”the astonishing adventures of a British intelligence officer working in Central Asia, and his escape from the Bolsheviks”. This Mission is also referred to as the Mission of Lt-Col F. M. Bailey to Kashgar, Jul 1918-Jan 1921 (in a British Library document)
"In Russian Turkestan under the Bolsheviks" by F. M. Bailey Journal of the Central Asian Society Volume 8, 1921, No 1, pp49-69. Journal pdf download, Pahar Mountains Of Central Asia Digital Dataset.
"A Visit to Bokhara in 1919" by F. M. Bailey The Geographical Journal Vol. 57, No. 2 (Feb., 1921), pp. 75-87, and "A Visit to Bokhara in 1919: Discussion" pp. 87-95. A sequel to the mission sent to the Soviet Government of Turkistan. Read online for free, but first you must register, and limits apply, see Miscellaneous tips. Also available as a pdf download, Pahar: Mountains Of Central Asia Digital Dataset.
1971 Beyond The Frontiers–Biography Of F M Bailey by Swinson. Pdf download, Pahar: Mountains Of Central Asia Digital Dataset. Full Title: Beyond the Frontiers: the Biography of Colonel F. M. Bailey, Explorer and Special Agent by Arthur Swinson 1971.
Setting the East Ablaze : Lenin's Dream of an Empire in Asia by Peter Hopkirk 1985 Lending Library. 1920s-1930s. Includes chapters about Frederick Bailey.
Peter Hopkirk was with The Times of London for nineteen years, as chief reporter and Middle and Far East specialist.
This book is also available as a pdf download, Pahar: Mountains Of Central Asia Digital Dataset.
Sir Arnold Wilson, (page 26 above) states Blacker has given an account “in which fiction blends agreeably with fact” and that Blacker was the assistant of Lt Col Bailey, although this is never mentioned in Blacker's account.
"Travels in Turkistan 1918-20" by L. V. S. Blacker, Captain , QVO Corps of Guides.The Geographical Journal Vol. 58, No. 3 (Sep., 1921), pp. 178-197 and "Travels in Turkistan 1918-20: Discussion" pp. 197-198. Read online for free, but first you must register, and limits apply, see Miscellaneous tips. Also available as a pdf download, Pahar: Mountains Of Central Asia Digital Dataset.
"The Forbidden Fortress of Khurasan" by L V S Blacker page 824 Blackwood’s Magazine, no 210 July-December 1921
"Wars and Travel in Turkestan 1918-1920" by L V S Blacker Journal of the Central Asian Society Volume 9 1922 pp 4-20.
Tales from Turkistan-a Scythian's Stories by Stor Lob (Latham Valentine Stewart Blacker) 1924 The Preface states "Nearly all these stories are true: the remainder are made up of episodes which actually happened". Most of the tales originally appeared in Blackwood's Magazine. Review of Tales from Turkestan digital page 736 Journal of the United Service Institution of India Volume 54, 1924.

Turkey in the post 1918 period

Hand Book : Near East Relief 1920. An American charitable organisation.
The Medical Work of the Near East Relief; A review of its accomplishments in Asia Minor and the Caucasus during 1919-20 edited by Geo. L Richards 1923


  • Online articles from The Naval Review. Update Now available to members only apart for the exception "Time limited access to the archive is open to researchers and historians after 10 years from an article’s original publishing date for a small administration charge", see the page About us/Regulations. See Royal Navy for further comments.
    • 1919, Volume 7, Issue 4 "A Narrative from the Caspian Sea- (a) Reconnaissance of Fort Alexandrovsk" pages 520-523 and "A Narrative from the Caspian Sea- (b) Specimens of Bolshevist Propaganda" pages 525-531. By Cdr E L Grieve RN.
    • 1920 Volume 8, Issue 1 "The Royal Navy on the Caspian, 1918-1919". Pages 87-99
    1920 Volume 8, Issue 2 "The Royal Navy on the Caspian, 1918-1919" pages 218-240. By Capt D T Norris RN.
    • 1920 Volume 8, Issue 2 "Baku During the British Naval Campaign on the Caspian in 1919" pages 241-269. By Capt G L Purnell RN.
    • 1921, Volume 9, Issue 3 "Operations in the Crimea, 1919" pages 467-474. By Capt B S Thesiger RN.
    • 1921, Volume 9, Issue 4 "Narrative of HMS Caradoc 1917-1920" by Surgeon Lt G D Markham. "Part I" page 641; "Part II" 1922, Issue 1 p116; "Part III" 1922 Issue 2 p 290. Black Sea.
Editions of The Naval Review are available at the British Library, which however does not appear to hold a complete set, and at the University of Oxford Library.
  • "The Caspian Naval Force" Chapter 23 page 271 Britain's Sea Soldiers. A Record of the Royal Marines during the War 1914-1919. Compiled by General Sir H. E. Blumberg, Royal Marines 1927. HathiTrust Digital Library.
Other chapters from this book containing deployments in the region Chapter 22 page 259 and Chapter 35 page 430. mirror version.
  • Account of "Seaman Gunner Stan Smith", page 161 The True Glory : the Royal Navy, 1914-1939 by Max Arthur 1996. A 2nd file where the account commences page 227. Both Books to Borrow/Lending Library. Smith was held as a prisoner at Baku by the Bolsheviks in very harsh conditions, also referred to as the "Black Hole of Baku". "Obituary: Stan Smith" by G K Johnson 9 Dec. 1995., archived
1920 Royal Navy mission to Enzeli Wikipedia.
  • "Spotting Mines from a Balloon" by Lieut. Audrey L C White pages 37-38 and page 56 Popular Aviation January 1931. Google Books. Post war mine clearing the sea for shipping and reopening the port of Constantinople. (The Balloonists may have been part of the RAF).
  • Fiction based on actual experiences. Naval Odyssey by Thomas Woodrooffe 1938, first published c 1936. HathiTrust Digital Library. Toby Warren, on the (fictitious) British cruiser HMS "Cassiopeia", participates in the events in Turkey during the 1920s, and the Royal Navy's involvement in the crises there. One of the chapters is titled "Constan., 1923". A publisher's note about the book and the author says "After the war he saw service …in the Mediterranean…is thus eminently qualified to write a book about things actually seen and experienced while in the Navy".[16]

Air Force

Over the Balkans and South Russia being the History of No. 47 Squadron Royal Air Force by H.A. Jones 1923. Contents details. Also reprinted in 1987.
  • “With the RAF in South Russia” by Lieut. K Warner-Jones RAF page 276 The Wide World Magazine. Adventure - Travel - Sport. Volume 45 1920 May-October.
  • Last Train over Rostov Bridge by Captain Marion Aten and Arthur Orrmont 1961 Books to Borrow/Lending Library. Marion Aten was an American who flew in No. 47 Squadron, RAF.
A review ( has doubts about the veracity of some of the stories, which were probably added to make the book more saleable to the general public, and elsewhere it is considered to be a a vivid though chronologically unreliable account. [17]
An expanded edition based on a "wealth of new material", including photographs was published in 2011. Sample pages Google Books.


  • My War Experiences in Two Continents by S MacNaughtan [Sarah] 1919 Based on her diaries. A press cutting states “she is a well-known authoress, whose works have attained a world-wide reputation” (page 167). She worked as an orderly with a Unit in Belgium headed by Mrs St. Clair Stobart, then went as a volunteer to Russia, ending up in the Caucasus, where she fell ill in 1916 and returned to England where she died a few months later in July.
  • Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East: A Documentary Record by J C Hurewitz 1956. Volume I 1535-1914, Volume II 1914-1956
  • Documents on British Foreign Policy, 1919-1939 First Series Volume XII HMSO 1962. HathiTrust Digital Library. Certain areas only, may not be viewable in USA.
First Series Volume XII version, Google Books version.
First Series Volume XIII Turkey February-December 1920. Arabia, Syria and Palestine February 1920- January 1921. Persia January 1920-March 1921. version, Google Books version.
First Series Volume XVII Greece and Turkey January 1, 1921-September 2, 1922 version, Google Books version.
First Series Volume XVIII Greece and Turkey September 3, 1922-July 24, 1923 version, Google Books version.
HathiTrust Digital Library editions for this series (viewing conditions differ- some may not be available in USA). Details of the volumes (, archived page)
Vocabularies: English, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Armenian, Kurdish, Syriac Compiled by the Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division, Naval Staff, Admiralty. HMSO. 1920


  1. Map of Lower Mesopotamia fromThe Inland Water Transport in Mesopotamia compiled by Lieut.-Col. L. J. Hall 1921
  2. Page 503, Worcestershire Regiment in the Great War, Volume 2‬ by Capt H. FitzM. Stacke, 1928. Reprint edition, Naval & Military Press. Refer Historical books online.
  3. Page 506, Worcestershire Regiment in the Great War, Volume 2‬ by Capt H. FitzM. Stacke, 1928. Reprint edition. Naval & Military Press
  4. bushfighter [Fecitt, Harry]. Salonika/Transcaspia/Army of Black Sea query Great War Forum 12 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  5. The Occupation of Constantinople 1918–1923 by Brigadier-General J. E. Edmonds. Originally written in 1944. Naval & Military Press.
  6. Description of The Postal History of the Army of the Black Sea : 1918 - 1923 by John Slingsby., now an archived webpage.
  7. KizmeRD. HMS Julius - Seeking Information Great War Forum 20 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  8. "The Indian Army at Gallipoli 1915", page 2, condensed from a paper presented by Sqn Ldr Rana TS Chhina (Retd) at a conference organised by the Australian War Memorial in August 2010. Archived page, website of the High Commission of India in Australia
  9. medalmaniac [Les] Col G.D. Pike MC, 9th Gurkhas, KIA Caucasus 15 August 1918 Great War Forum 1 November 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  10. Operations In Persia. Official History Of The Great War by Brig.-Gen. F. J. Moberly, reprint of confidential edition (original pub 1929) Naval & Military Press.
  11. TNA ADM/273/5/356 and ADM/337/118
  12. charlesmessenger. Armoured Cars: Naval, Galicia/ Machine Gun Corps, Baku Great War Forum 7 November 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  13. "Encounters on the Eastern Front: The Royal Naval Armoured Car Division in Russia 1915–1920" by Charlotte Alston War in History 2017 pages 1-26.
  14. "Ulster's Forgotten Eastern Front" by Peter Stevenson, written c 2004 The story of the Russian Armoured Car Division. Cites the book The Czar's British Squadron by Bryan Perrett and Anthony Lord 1981, available at the British Library UIN: BLL01008443007 .
  15. "The Tsar's British Armoured Car Units" Ballymena 1914-1918.
  16. "Publisher's Note" [about Naval Odyssey] Morning Tribune, 27 April 1936, Page 15.
  17. "Biplane Battle: Flying Against the Bolsheviks During Russia’s Civil War" by Derek O'Connor. See External links above. (scroll down).