Mesopotamia Campaign

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Mesopotamia Campaign
6 November 1914-14 November 1918
Chronological list of Wars and Campaigns
Mesopotamia - Troops entrenching.jpg
Location: Mesopotamia
United Kingdom Ottoman Empire

Armistice of Mudros
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

The 1914-15 Star
The British War Medal 1914-18
Category: Mesopotamia Campaign
Battlemappic.gif See our interactive map of
Mesopotamia Campaign
locations and routes on Google Maps
Mesopotamia 1917 Assistant Surgeon G E Ferguson, IMD

This event is part of the First World War


The Mesopotamia Campaign was fought from November 1914 to November 1918 between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from the Indian Empire, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.

However the country actually remained a theatre of warfare until a peace treaty was ratified in 1924. Large numbers of troops from India were sent to deal with a revolt in 1920[1]

Related articles

For further details of events during this period see the following articles


Details of some of the protagonists in the campaign

Also see

British Library holdings

  • British Library Catalogue Link: Explore Archives and Manuscripts and British Library Main Catalogue
  • An account of the operations of the 18th (Indian) Division in Mesopotamia, December 1917 to December 1918, with the names of all the units which served with the division and a nominal roll of all the officers by Walter Edward Wilson-Johnston 1919. UIN: BLL01012503831
  • Iraq Administration Reports 1914–1932 in ten volumes (5, 500 pages): Contents: 1. 1914-1918 -- 2. 1918 -- 3-4. 1919 -- 5-6. 1920 -- 7. 1920-1924 -- 8. 1925-1927 -- 9. 1928-1930 -- 10. 1931-1932, with contents outline.[2] UIN: BLL01006696261

Regimental and Corps Histories

  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery : the Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914-18 by Sir Martin Farndale 1988. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01008145796
  • The Railway Gazette Special War Transportation Number, originally published in September 1920, as part of The Railway Gazette and Railway News. Described at the time as ‘the first connected account’ of the role of railways and inland water transport in supporting the British military campaign during the Great War of 1914-18. Contains a wealth of detail on operations on most Fronts inc. the organisation of wartime transportation; statistics and Fronts, including Railway Operations in Macedonia, Mesopotamia, Palestine & East Africa. Available at the British Library as part of UIN: BLL01013904893 or in a 2013 reprint edition UIN: BLL01016871224. Also available in a reprint edition[3].

Volunteer Regiments

FIBIS resources

  • "Trumpeter Inwood, an Anglo-Indian hero of the Kut Garrison" by Rosemary Reardon FIBIS Journal Number 32 (Autumn 2014) pages 18-29. For details of how to access this article, see FIBIS Journals.

Wounded and sick soldiers

Wounded and other ill soldiers from Mesopotamia were sent to India for treatment and convalescence. Some of these sadly became part of the group of soldiers who died in India.[4]

A description of some of the hospital ship voyages and the hospitals in India may be found in the chapter "Australian Nurses in India 1916-1919" page 124 With Horse and Morse in Mesopotamia, see Historical books online below.

Persia and Transcaucasia

Troops under the control of the Army in Mesopotamia took part in actions in Persia, and later Transcaucasia. See Norperforce.

External links

"Learning The Hard Way: The Indian Army In Mesopotamia, 1914-1918" by Dr Kristian Coates Ulrichsen, BCMH Summer Conference 2012 – Indian Armies (The British Commission for Military History, now an archived webpage.)
  • Middle Eastern Geographies of World War I by Maj James G Riely, United States Army 2010. Defense Technical Information Archive Collection. DTIC ADA523248 . Contrasts the operations which led to the fall of Kut, with the successes of the British-sponsored Arab Revolt of 1916-18.
  • Cavalry of the Clouds: Aspects of the Air War in the Eastern Theatre,1914-1918 by C H. Whitley 1997. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in History in the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. A pdf download, which depending on your browser, you may need to locate in your downloads folder.
  • Forgotten Airwar: Airpower in the Mesopotamian Campaign by Peter J Lambert, 2003 Master of Military Art and Science Thesis, Command and General Staff College (CGSC) Fort Leavenworth, KS. Combined Arms Research Library [CARL] Digital Library. version, Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) collection.
  • Royal Air Force Historical Society Journal 48 2010. html version, pdf version, now archived. Includes "Only A Sideshow? The RFC And RAF In Mesopotamia 1914-1918" by Guy Warner pages 9-19 and "The RAF Armoured Car Companies In Iraq (Mostly) 1921-1947" by Dr Christopher Morris pages 20-38.
  • "The AFC In Hotter Climes: The Air War Over The Mesopotamian Desert" by Air Commodore Mark Lax. Part of the conference By The Seat Of Their Pants The Proceedings of the Conference held 12 November 2012 at the RAAF Museum, Point Cook by Military History And Heritage Victoria.
  • "Developing Iraq: Britain, India and the Redemption of Empire and Technology in the First World War" by Priya Satia Past & Present (2007) Volume 197, Issue 1, pages 211-255
  • En-Dor Unveiled : The Story behind The Road to En-dor by Tony Craven Walker February 2014. html version, pdf, link to other downloads Retrieved 26 October 2014. Contains correspondence from E H Jones, refer "Historical books online" below. He was a member of the Volunteer Artillery Battery (Rangoon Contingent). Very likely this was , or was connected with, the Rangoon Port Defence Volunteer Corps, which had an Artillery section.
  • Articles by Amitav Ghosh: "Shared Sorrows: Indians and Armenians in the prison camps of Ras al-‘Ain, 1916-18". It is based on an account written by an Indian member of the Bengal Ambulance Corps (BAC), who became a prisoner after the fall of Kut. and ended up in the prison camps of Ras al-'Ain, in northern Syria, in 1916. “The reason the story has survived is that one of the Indian prisoners happened to write about about his war experiences forty years later. His name was Sisir Sarbadhikari and his book Abhi Le Baghdad (or On To Baghdad) appeared in 1958” It is in 18 parts, in reverse order, consisting of two pages. Scroll to the bottom of this page for part 1. Scroll to the bottom of this page to continue. ( links 1 and 2) The earlier part of the memoir, from joining up in Calcutta to the fall of Kut is described in "On to Baghdad". Scroll to the bottom of the page for part 1, or "On to Baghdad", alternative format.
  • Accounts by Captain Kalyan Kumar Mukherji , a member of the Indian Medical Service, originally written in Bengali. After the fall of Kut he was sent to a prisoner-of-war camp at Ras al-‘Ain, Syria where he died in 1917. He was posthumously awarded the Military Cross. His accounts, in Bengali, are available online, refer below. Some excerpts have been translated into English by Amitav Ghosh. Scroll down to the entry The ‘Home and the World’ in Iraq 1915-17: Part 1 to commence. For the final posts, scroll down to the bottom three posts. Written July- August 2012 (retrieved 10 May 2014).
  • “Yet another Indian First World War memoir found!” Article about the War Memoirs of Captain Limaye, Indian Medical Service, written in Marathi. He was with the 87th Punjabis 1918-1921. He saw action in Mesopotamia and was involved in operations against the Kurdistanis in 1919 and in quelling the Arab Rebellion in 1920. This book may be viewed online, refer Historical books online below.
  • "Indian Soldiers and POWs in the Middle East during World War I" by Vedica Kant, Robert Upton, and Chris Gratien, Ottoman History Podcast, No. 86 (December 21, 2012) “ In this podcast, Vedica Kant talks about the experience of Indian POWs in the Ottoman Empire as well as that of Ottoman soldiers captured by the British army and brought to India and Burma, with additional commentary by Robert Upton regarding military recruitment in British India...” Webpage contains images.
  • The history hidden in Haydarpaşa Cemetery by Vedika Kant 01 August 2013., now an archived webpage. Holds the graves of some 400 soldiers from what are now the Commonwealth realms who died in Turkey, mostly as POWs, in World War I.
  • Inland Water Transport and Docks The article mentions that this section of the Royal Engineers was founded in 1914 and was later responsible for alternate transportation during World War One in various theatres of war - including Mesopotamia where personnel from India and China were deployed.
  • Grandpa’s Journal, now archived. Harry James Goulter Pearman was with the Army Audit Staff in Mesopotamia. The following entries contain items relating to issues of fraud by members of the IWT (Inland Water Transport), including the court martial of an officer. 18 April 1921, 26 April 1921, 16 May 1921, 27 May 1921, 27 June 1921, 4 July 1921, 9 July 1921. All are now archived webpages.
Most of the diary entries are for 1921. It is difficult for some/all browsers to navigate this website, see hints below if you want to read additional entries.[5]


Records of the Survey of India, Volume 20. The War Record 1914-1920 1925. If the download button does not display, locate in Books/Survey Of India, or Direct link PAHAR Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. Google Books version (now full view). version. Work of Royal Engineers and other staff of the Survey of India mapping in various theatres of war, in Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, Macedonia, Arabia, Persia, Palestine, East Africa and Afghanistan.
Maps for Mesopotamia, not generally available online, are to be found in The National Archives[UK] series WO 302

Historical books online

  • History Of The Great War: The Campaign In Mesopotamia 1914-1918 Volumes I-IV by F J Moberly. 1923-1927.
The titles are Volume I: To October 1915 : Outbreak of Hostilities, Campaign in Lower Mesopotamia, published 1923; Volume II: To April 1916: The Attempt on Baghdad, the Battle of Ctesiphon, the Siege and the Fall of Kut-al-Amara, published 1924; Volume III: To April 1917: The Capture and Consolidation of Baghdad, published 1926; Volume IV: The Campaign in Upper Mesopotamia to the Armistice, published 1927.
HathiTrust Digital Library editions. Note: Missing all/most Maps. Maps are available in the Qatar Digital Library versions (best for expansion of maps) or versions.
Volume I




Volume II




Volume III




Volume IV




Chronological Summary of the Campaign in Mesopotamia 1914-1918

Titles of Indian Cavalry, Infantry and Pioneer Units who served in Mesopotamia 1914-1918

Volume II is also available on Volume II, Contents, Index. Map: Middle East and Maps 8-9, 11, 13-17, 19-20. List of Maps versions, mirrors from the Digital Library of India: Vol I, List of Maps, Maps at back of book displayed out of order; Vol III, List of Maps, Maps at back of book displayed in reverse order; Vol IV, List of Maps, Maps at back of book displayed out of order.
Qatar Digital Library versions, best for expansion of maps. From British Library IOR/L/MIL/17/15/66/1-4 . Vol I; Vol II; Vol III; Vol IV. To access the maps, open the volume links, then expand the heading "About this record", and scroll down for links to the maps.
Also available in Naval & Military Press reprint editions which in turn are available online on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3 as one digital book The Campaign in Mesopotamia (located in Military Books-located by the Search/Iraq).
  • History of the Great War based on official documents. Order of Battle of Divisions Parts 1, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B and 4 all by Major A.F. Becke (London: HMSO, 1935-1945) are available in reprint editions[7], which in turn are available as one digital book of 1224 pages titled Order of Battle of Divisions on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3, located in Military Books-located by the Search/Britain. Includes some details about Mesopotamia, (perhaps limited?) but note these books appear to be in respect of the British Army only, (not Indian Army).
There were subsequent publications Order of Battle of Divisions Part 5A, Divisions of Australia, Canada and New Zealand and those in East Africa, compiled by F.W. Perry c 1992. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01006378898 and Order of Battle of Divisions. Part 5B, Indian Army Divisions compiled by F. W. Perry c 1993 available at the B.L. UIN: BLL01008151437 . The latter is also catalogued with the additional title History of the Great War : based on official documents.
Note, this report also contains the Vincent Bingley report into the medical situation as Appendix I. In addition, separately Appendices To The Report Of The Commission For Medical Arrangements In Mesopotamia Vol-II (July 1916). Volume 1 of these Appendices does not appear to be available online, (National Archives reference CAB19/27).
Report of the Committee on the Lessons of the Great War 13 Oct 1932 includes "Appendix V Mesopotamia" (Details[9].) Also known as the Kirke Report it is available in a reprint edition,[10] which in turn is available online on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3, located in Military Books-located by the Search/Britain.
Part II- Maps. IOR/L/MIL/17/15/72/2. Refer Maps above.
"Casualties in the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, November 1914 to December 1918" page 218 History of the Great War Based on Official Documents: Medical Services: Casualties and Medical Statistics of the Great War by Major T. J. Mitchell and Miss G. M. Smith. 1931 HathiTrust Digital Library
"The Control of Flies and Vermin in Mesopotamia" page 23 The Review of Applied Entomology Volume V 1917
"Heat-Stroke" Chapter IV page 51 In Mesopotamia by Martin Swayne (real name Maurice Nicoll) 3rd edition 1918 Heatstroke was also known as sunstroke, and occasionally as insolation or siriasis.
  • With the M. T. in Mesopotamia by Brevet Lt.-Col F W Leland RASC 1920 HathiTrust Digital Library. (M.T.= Mechanical Transport, part of the Royal Army Service Corps)
From the Gulf to the Caspian : being the souvenir booklet of the 33rd. Motor Ambulance Convoy which served in Mesopotamia and North Persia, 1916 to 1919 written by various members of the unit who remain anonymous. [1920?] State Library of Victoria. This Unit consisted of Army Service Corps personnel, together with Royal Army Medical Corps personnel.
The Royal Army Service Corps: A History of Transport and Supply in the British Army, Volume II by Colonel R H Beadon 1931. version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Includes the First World War period, with a chapter on Mesopotamia.
The Inland Water Transport in Mesopotamia compiled by Lieut.-Col. L. J. Hall, RE. 1921
"Inland Waterways and Docks, Royal Engineers in War Time, with special reference to the mystery port of Richborough (Lecture & Discussion)" by Captain A E Battle, RE Proceedings of the Victorian Institute of Engineers 1923-1924, pages 104-116. Includes Inland Water Transport in Mesopotamia, and brief mention of other theatres of war. Melbourne University Digital Collection.
Townshend of Chitral and Kut: Based on the diaries and private papers of Sir Charles Vere Townshend by Erroll Sherson 1928. version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
Loyalties: Mesopotamia; a personal and historical record, Volume II 1917-1920 by Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson 1931. HathiTrust Digital Library. Possibly not accessible in USA etc. Also available as a download from 1936 edition. Also published under the title Mesopotamia, 1917-1920; a Clash of Loyalties.
For other Indian Army regimental histories on fold3 (Ancestry owned pay website), see Hodson's Horse; 9th Bhopal Infantry; 20th (Cambridge's Own) Infantry, Brownlow's Punjabis; 24th Punjabis; 26th Punjabis; 45th Rattray’s Sikhs; 59th Scinde Rifles; 67th Punjabis; 5th Gurkha Rifles; 2nd Battalion, Madras Pioneers;
  • Page 99 T. E. Lawrence: In Arabia and After by Liddell Hart 1934 T E Lawrence accompanied Aubrey Herbert, to negotiate regarding the besieged Kut garrison. Extracts from Lawrence’s description of these proceedings, in a letter dated 18 May [1916] from the website A Century Back: Writing the Great War, Day by Day. April 29, 2016. Scroll down. The letter was written to his family,[13] see more details.
For more about Lawrence, see T E Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia).
The Royal Engineers Journal Vol. XXXVIII No 3, September 1924 Scroll to “The decision to Defend Kut-El-Amarah by Major EWC Sandes RE, page 423.
Tales of Turkey by Major E W C Sandes 1924. version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
A History of the Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) in the Great War 1914-1918 [in three Volumes] Edited by Major General A G Wauchope 1926. Volume One including 2nd Battalion in Mesopotamia page 203. Digital [email protected] University Library.
A revised second edition was published for Volume 3 1940, whose dustjacket cover states "Important revisions" including in respect of the Dardanelles and Mesopotamia.[16]. A facsimile reprint of the 2nd edition of Volume 3 was reprinted by Imperial War Museum/Battery Press in 1995 (available at the British Library UIN: BLL01011725482) and it is possible that the reprints available from Naval & Military Press, which are in turn available on the Ancestry owned pay website fold.3, (located in Military Books-located by the Search/Britain) contain the revised editions.
  • World War 1 at Sea - Contemporary Accounts: The Navy Records Society and The Naval Review Scroll down to Part 2, Naval Review letter M “Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf”, then access the articles mentioned in the Naval Review Archives. Includes
    • "The Tigris Above Baghdad" by Lieut-Comr. A S Elwell-Sutton RN. Scroll to item 15 page 153 The Naval Review February 1923 Vol. XI No. I, produced by The Naval Society. Now an archived webpage. Details of the Caddisfly, one of the 'Fly' class gunboats.
  • "The First Commission of HMS Firefly" by Staff Surgeon FG Hitch RN JRNMS Volume 4, 1918 One of the 'Fly' class gunboats. Also details of other craft on the river Tigris.
  • Tigris Gunboats : a narrative of the Royal Navy's co-operation with the military forces in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the war to the capture of Baghdad (1914-17) by Vice-Admiral Wilfrid Nunn 1932 is available in a reprint edition[17] which in turn is available as an online book on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3 as Tigris Gunboats (located in Military Books-located by the Search/Britain).
  • War in the Air: being the story of the part played in the Great War by the Royal Air Force, Volumes II-VI by H A Jones. Volume V 1935, Volume VI 1937. Part of the series History of the Great War based on official documents. Include Mesopotamia.
  • The Australian Flying Corps in the Western and Eastern Theatres of War, 1914-1918 by F M Cutlack 1933 (first published 1923) The Official History of Australia in the War: Volume VIII
  • In the Clouds above Baghdad, being the Records of an Air Commander by Lt-Col J E Tennant 1920
  • History of No.30 Squadron RAF. Egypt and Mesopotamia 1914 to 1919 [catalogued] by Major J.Everidge, R.A.F. is available as a reprint[18] of an original Air Ministry Historical Branch typed document, probably first published as a reprint c 2004, which in turn is available as an online book on the Ancestry owned pay website located in Military Books-located by the Search/Egypt.
  • War In The Desert: An R. A. F. Frontier Campaign by John Bagot Glubb 1960. Mainly about Iraq in the 1920s.
Arabian Adventures : Ten years of joyful service by John Glubb (Sir John Bagot Glubb) 1978. The period from 1920, when he was posted as a member of the Royal Engineers. Books to Borrow/Lending Library. John Bagot Glubb Wikipedia.
For earlier Despatches, refer the website Mesopotamia In The First World War,, above in this section.
Despatch by Lieut-General Sir W R Marshall on the operations of the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force from 1st October 1918 to 31st December 1918, dated 1st February 1919. Mesopotamia and NW Persia (page 4743) The London Gazette 8 April 1919 Supplement: 31287 Page: 4739
Despatch from Major General Sir George F MacMunn, officiating Commander-In Chief, Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, describing events since 1st January 1919, including North Persia, and Southern and Cental Kurdistan, for various operations between March and September 1919. The London Gazette 5 March 1920 Supplement: 31813 Page: 2877. The actual pages are dated 8 March 1920.
Four Despatches from the Commander-In Chief, Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force: Despatch No 1, dated 17th January 1920 from MacMunn, covering the period November 1919 to 17th January 1920. Despatches from Lieutenant-General Haldane, covering the periods: 18th January 1920 to 30th June 1920 in Mesopotamia and NW Persia. [Despatch No 2 dated 23rd August 1920. Page 5323]; 1st July 1820 to 19th October 1920 [Despatch No 3 dated 8th November 1920, page 5329] Despatch No 4, dated 8th February 1921 (page 5347) The London Gazette 1 July 1921 Issue: 32379 Page:5321.
The Letters of Gertrude Bell published 1927., Digital Library of India Collection.Volume I, Volume II. Mainly letters sent to her family. Volume II is in respect of her time in Baghdad 1917-1926.
  • Two Years in Kurdistan : Experiences of a Political Officer, 1918-1920 by W R Hay, Captain, attached 24th Punjabis, Political Dept, Government of India. 1921
  • Alarms and Excursions in Arabia by Bertram Thomas 1931 Includes "Adventure 1: A Punative Expedition against Marsh Arabs" [1918] and "Adventure II: As a District Officer in the Mesopotamian Insurrection of 1920".
  • Shifting Sands by Major N N E Bray (Norman Napier Evelyn) 1934 He was originally with the 18th Bengal Lancers.[19] Initially during WW1 Bray was working under Sir Mark Sykes, and for the Arab Bureau. C October 1917 he returned to France and his regiment. Subsequently he became the Hakim (Governor) of Kerbela, as a part of the British Administration of A. T Wilson in Mesopotamia.
A Paladin Of Arabia: The Biography of Brevet Lieut.-Colonel G E Leachman… of the Royal Sussex Regiment by Major N N E Bray 1936 Gerard Leachman Wikipedia. He was murdered 12 August 1920. A later biography is Leachman : 'OC Desert' : the life of Lieutenant-Colonel Gerard Leachman D.S.O. by H.V.F. Winstone, 1982. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01011983983 .
  • The Insurrection in Mesopotamia 1920 by Lieutenant General Sir Aylmer L. Haldane 1922. Missing title page noted, and see "Reviews" underneath the book file for other missing pages. Another version on (links to a series of pdfs, most of which contain the text ”on its side”, so may be difficult to read on a fixed computer screen.) HathiTrust Digital Library, accessible in North America and limited other areas only.
  • Mesopotamia: the "Daily Mail" inquiry at Baghdad by Sir Percival Phillips 1922
  • The Truth About Mesopotamia Palestine and Syria by John de Vere Loder 1923. version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
  • "List Of British Military Forces In Iraq 1928" WO 33/1163 from The National Archives, Kew, UK.
  • Iraq Levies 1915-1932 by Brigadier J Gilbert Browne CMG. CBE. DSO. 1932 . A transcription. “Assyrian RAF Levies”. Also available in a reprint edition,[20] which in turn is available online on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3 as The Iraq Levies (located in Military Books-located by the Search/Iraq).
  • The Ins and Outs of Mesopotamia by Thomas Lyell 1923. version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
  • Iraq: A Study in Political Development by Philp Willard Ireland 1937. version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Additional file Includes chapters on the war period, in addition to the post war years.
  • Page 219 The Memoirs Of Sir Ronald Storrs 1937 The author, working for the Foreign Office in Egypt, was appointed Political Officer in Mesopotamia in 1917 to represent the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in Mesopotamia.
  • Kurds Turks and Arabs: Politics, Travel and Research in North-Eastern Iraq 1919-1925 by C J Edmonds (Cecil John) 1957 Note, text is presented “on its side”, so viewing may be difficult on a fixed screen. C J Edmonds was also the author of East and West of Zagros: Travel, War and Politics in Persia and Iraq, 1913-1921 edited, and with an introduction by Yann Richard 2010. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01015362692 . Sample pages, Google Books. Edmonds, C. J
  • "Chapter V Iraq between the Wars" page 35, The Kurds And Kurdistan by Derk Kinnane 1964
  • The Arab Bureau : British policy in the Middle East, 1916-1920 by Bruce Westrate 1992. Books to Borrow/Lending Library.
  • A History of Iraq by Charles Tripp. 1st edition, 2000; 3rd edition 2007, (2nd edition 2002), 2nd file 2007 Books to Borrow/Lending Library.
  • Spies in Arabia: The Great War and the Cultural Foundations of Britain's Covert Empire in the Middle East by Priya Satia 2008.
  • Field Notes Mesopotamia by General Staff India 1915 (Poor quality print) version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
  • Turkish Official Histories Birinci Dünya Harbi Serisi / World War I Series from Ministry of National Defence, Republic of Turkey. Includes maps. Includes Item 20 Birinci Dünya Harbinde Türk Harbi, Irak-İran Cephesi (1914-1918) III Cilt and Item 6 Birinci Dünya Harbi’nde Türk Harbi İran - Irak Cephesi 1914 - 1918, C 3, Ks. 2. Using Google Translate Item 20 Turkish War in the First World War, Iraqi-Iran Front (1914-1918) III Volume and Item 6 Turkish War in the First World War Iran - Iraq Front 1914 - 1918, C 3, Ks. 2nd. There is also item 15 Birinci Dünya Harbi, Türk Hava Harekatı C.9 Air Operations, and item 16 Birinci Dünya Harbinde Türk Harbi, Deniz Harekâtı C.8 Naval Operations. Histories are in the Turkish language.
  • When’s When In Mesopotamia by General Staff, Mes. Ex. Force Printed at the Government Press Baghdad 1919. version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Conversion tables showing the European style dates from August 1914 to December 1919 and the equivalent dates under various other systems: Arabic - Old Style - Turkish Official - Jewish - Persian Zodiacal. Also details of Arabic time, where the day commences at sunset.
  • The Spoken Arabic of Mesopotamia by John Van Ess, first published 1917., mirror from Digital Library of India.
  • Kalyan Pradeep: Captain Kalyan Kumar Mukhopadhadhaya, I.M.S.-er Jiboni, by Mokkhoda ['Mokshada'] Debi (1928) [Kalyan Pradeep: The Life of Captain Kalyan Kumar Mukherji, I.M.S.] in Bengali. The catalogue entry is Kalyan-Pradip by Mokshada Debi. There are two book files, version 1, mirror from Digital Library of India; version 2, mirror from Digital Library of India.
  • Sainyaan'tiila Aat'havand-ii by Limaye Go Gan' published 1939. version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Sainyatil Athavani, or War Memoirs of Captain Gopal Gangadhar Limaye. Marathi language with an English Introduction. The author was in the Indian Medical Service IMS, 1918-1921. As part of the 87th Punjabis, he saw action in Mesopotamia and was involved in operations against the Kurdistanis in 1919 and in quelling the Arab Rebellion in 1920.
  • Also see Norperforce, for books relating to actions in Persia and Transcaucasia, under control of the Army in Mesopotamia.
  • Fiction


  1. Mesopotamia 1920-21 from Harry’s Sideshows by Harry Fecitt
  2. Iraq Administration Reports 1914–1932
  3. Railway Gazette – Special Great War Transportation Number Naval & Military Press.
  4. Khyber Pass 1/5th Royal West Surrey, Murree, Aug 1916 Great War Forum 28 August 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  5. The dates of the entries are in the top LH corner of the Home webpage now archived, from 21 December 1920 to 1 February 1922. Before being archived, the entries from the journal were in the format , where, for a particular entry, ab is the year, cd is the month, ef is the first mentioned day in the month (all two digits). A typical example is , and most entries are similarly from 1921. Construct your own URL, using the relevant date, then use "Browse History" in the Internet Archive Wayback Machine to obtain the archived URL. Alternatively using the Internet Archive ( link scroll down to entries containing the word journal, and then click on the link. However, these links are not all in date order.
  6. PassTHE knowledge by Akhi Soufyan
  7. Order of Battle of Divisions by A.F. Becke Part 1, Parts 2A and 2B, Parts 3A and 3B, Part 4. Index by Ray Westlake. Naval & Military Press reprint editions.
  8. Page 35 in an article "The Mesopotamian Front! As observed by Lieutenant Colonel Edward Davis US Cavalry 1918", edited by Leo J Daugherty III Armor, Volume 112, Issue 2 March –April 2003 Google Books.
  9. Greenwoodman. Official Inquiry into Conduct of WW1 Great War Forum 19 June 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  10. Report of the Committee on the Lessons of the Great War Naval & Military Press reprint edition.
  11. An Account of the Operations of the 18th (Indian) Division in Mesopotamia December 1917 to December 1918 by Lieut. Col WE Wilson-Johnston. Naval & Military Press reprint edition.
  12. The “D” Force (Mesopotamia) in the Great War by J Fitzgerald Lee. Naval & Military Press reprint edition.
  13. 29 April 2016: On this day in history T E Lawrence Society on Facebook. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  14. Elias Henry Jones homefrontmuseum (accessed 22 July 2014)
  15. 15.0 15.1 June 2019 catalogue
  16. MartH. Rarest book? post 869, page 35 Great War Forum 12 December 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  17. Tigris Gunboats: A Narrative Of The Royal Navy’s Co-Operation With The Military Forces In Mesopotamia From The Beginning Of The War To The Capture Of Baghdad (1914-1917) by Vice-Admiral Wilfrid Nunn, first published 1932. Naval & Military Press.
  18. History of No.30 Squadron RAF. Egypt and Mesopotamia 1914 to 1919 Naval & Military Press.
  19. Page 23 Behind the Lawrence Legend: The Forgotten Few Who Shaped the Arab Revolt by Philip Walker 2018 Google Books.
  20. Iraq Levies 1915-1932 Naval & Military Press.
  21. Maureene. Fiction/faction/fact? The Legion of Marching Madmen/ W J Blackledge: Online Great War Forum 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.