First World War

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First World War information relevant to British India, including the involvement of the Indian Army and of Anglo Indians in the British Army. During the First World War compulsory service was deemed necessary and the Indian Defence Force Act was passed in 1917. European British men between the ages of 18 and 41 were subject to compulsory service within India. Thus men serving overseas were not sent as conscripts, but had voluntarily joined either the Indian Army, or the British Army.

Hampshire Regt WW1 Shield with India noted

General information

Expeditionary Forces

Seven expeditionary forces served during World War I

  • Indian Expeditionary Force A served on the European Western Front
  • Indian Expeditionary Force B served in the East African Campaign
  • Indian Expeditionary Force C composed of the Imperial Service Infantry Brigade served in British East Africa
  • Indian Expeditionary Force D served in the Mesopotamia Campaign
  • Indian Expeditionary Force E served in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign
  • Indian Expeditionary Force F served in the First Suez Offensive
  • Indian Expeditionary Force G served in the Gallipoli Campaign

The Indian Divisions of 1914-1918 [1]

Division Theatres Arrival in first theatre
1st (Peshawar) - Remained in India
2nd (Rawalpindi) - Remained in India
3rd (Lahore) France & Flanders, Mesopotamia October 1914
4th (Quetta) - Remained in India
5th (Mhow) - Remained in India
6th (Poona) Mesopotamia From November 1914
7th (Meerut) France & Flanders, Mesopotamia October 1914
8th (Lucknow) - Remained in India
9th (Secunderabad) - Remained in India
10th Egypt Formed in Egypt 1914
11th Egypt Formed in Egypt 1914
12th Mesopotamia Formed in Mesopotamia 1915
13th - Not formed
14th Mesopotamia Formed in Mesopotamia 1916
15th Mesopotamia Formed in Mesopotamia 1916
16th - Remained in India
17th Mesopotamia Formed in Mesopotamia 1917
18th Mesopotamia Formed in Mesopotamia 1917
Burma Division - Remained in India
1st Indian Cavalry France & Flanders November 1914. Renamed 4th Cavalry Division in November 1916
2nd Indian Cavalry France & Flanders December 1914. Renamed 5th Cavalry Division in November 1916


“Britain's declaration of war on Germany in 1914, brought immediate mobilization in India and by 1915, the British war drain produced hundreds of officer vacancies in the regular army which became accessible to Anglo-Indians for the first time since the East India Company's ban of 1791. Conscription was enforced systematically among the Anglo-Indians at odds with the experience of other Indian communities treated more leniently. (Abel:1988) By 1916, perhaps 8,000 Anglo-Indians had joined British units as in the case of the many "India-born" recruits accepted by the Dorset Regiment. Jhansi's Anglo-Indian Battery, part of the Anglo-Indian Force, attached to the 77th Royal Field Artillery, had the largest concentration of Anglo-Indian conscripts and volunteers and earned a distinguished record in the Mesopotamian conflict. In total, 50-75% of the adult Anglo-Indian population saw active service although non-emergency enlistment in the British Army remained closed to them. (Dover:1937) Most were immediately sent abroad while others were employed by the sudden munitions and supply boom, for instance, at Kanpur where the army's leather processing centre had been located since after the Mutiny. (Thomas:1982)” [2]

In 1916 the Anglo-Indian Association was asked to raise a battalion of Anglo-Indian soldiers - an Anglo-Indian force; some of them served in Mesopotamia[3]. By the September of 1917 the Anglo-Indian Force had drawn more than 950 men.[25][4]

The Anglo Indian Battery, an Artillery unit which was part of the Anglo Indian Force, served in Mesopotamia and returned to India at the end of the war and was based at Trimulgherry. The Government of India decided the unit should be a permanent part of the forces, but it appears not to have survived the cuts of the post war slump

Temporary Commissions & Indian Army Reserve of Officers 1917-1921

IOR Ref - (L/MIl/9/435-623)

The First World War necessitated a reserve force of British Army officers for the Indian Army to supplement regular recruitment of cadets from Sandhurst, Wellington and Quetta. Temporary commissions were, therefore, granted to British Officers, NCOs and enlisted men of the required educational standard.

Fortunately, the individual names in this section are listed in searchable indexes on the National Archives Access to Archives website (See External links. The full record will show birth details and army service.

In the same index volume, on the open shelves in the British Library, is a further typed list of about 2,500 names compiled from a card index relating to medal claims. This index gives rank, unit , date of release and post-release address.( It does not actually show medal entitlement)

Finally the volume contains an index of 815 British Army other ranks commissioned into the Indian Army during the First World War. Fuller reference is shown as WO339 (pieces 139092 -139906) held at The National Archives – (See War Office: Officers' Services, First World War, Long Number Papers (numerical) in External links

The British Library has the book, in five volumes, covering the First World War, Alphabetical list giving particulars of officers of the Indian Army Reserve of Officers / [issued by] Army Headquarters, India, Military Secretary’s Branch. The catalogue entry states "Contents: [v.1]. 26th June 1916 _ v.2. 24th January 1917 _ v.3. 31st December 1917 _ v.4. 30th June 1918 _ v.5. 31st December 1918". The shelfmark is OIR 355.37 Open Access. There are also the records, Applications for appointments to the India Army Reserve of Officers ‎ (1916-1918) IOR/L/MIL/9/552 to IOR/L/MIL/9/552. Search by name, in the British Library's Archives and Manuscripts catalogue.

FIBIS database: A List of Officers (I.A.R.O.) recruited to or Re-engaged during the Year 1916 and up to the middle of January 1917

Fibis members can contact Fibis research should they wish to access further detail from these records.

British Army Territorial Force troops in India

Territorial Force troops were sent to India so that regular units could be released for service in France.[5]

On 22 September 1914 the government of India agreed to send 32 British and 20 Indian regular army battalions to Europe in exchange for 43 Territorial Force battalions. [6]

  • The 43rd (Wessex) Division - All units assembled at Southampton on 9 October. Sailing via Malta and Suez, the main body of the Division went to Bombay, landing on 9 November, with three units (4th, 5th and 6th Devons) landing at Karachi two days later. [6]
  • The 44th (Home Counties) Division - All units that were going to India assembled at Southampton and sailed on 30 October. They all went to Bombay, landing between 1 and 3 December.[7]
  • The 45th (2nd Wessex) Division On 25 November 1914 it was decided to send from the 2nd Wessex 10 battalions of infantry and the artillery. Two battalions (2/4th Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry and 2/4th Hampshire Regiment went to Karachi (arriving 9 January 1915) via Aden; the rest landed at Bombay (4-8 January 1915).[8]

See British Army Territorial Force troops arriving in 1914‎ for those Regiments and Batteries arriving with the first two Divisions above, and their initial postings.

The Territorial Battalions in India generally experienced a movement of personnel, as drafts were provided for Regiments in Mesopotamia, and men transferred to specialist services. The Battalions in India in turn received drafts from Britain. As an example, 1/5th Battalion Somerset Light Infantry lost nearly half its original personnel in 2½ years in India. [9] Wounded and other ill soldiers from Mesopotamia were returned to India for treatment and convalescence. Some of these sadly became part of the group of soldiers who died in India.[10]

A regimental history which describes experiences of Territorials in India during the Great War is A Strange War: Burma, India and Afghanistan 1914-1919 by C P Mills. The Regiment was the 2/5th Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry.

Garrison Battalions

Garrison Battalions were made up of soldiers unfit for front line duty. This decision was made at time of enlistment or after previous front line service where the soldier had suffered wounds or sickness. They were sent to various parts of the empire on garrison duties to release fit soldiers for front line duty.[11] By the end of the war there were 18 Garrison Battalions in India.[12]

In India, men unfit for frontline duties in regiments about to leave India for war zones, were transferred into Garrison Battalions already serving in India.[13]

Some of the soldiers who served in the Garrison Battalions in India served on the North West Frontier in Afghanistan in 1919, in the 3rd Afghan War, almost certainly along the lines of communication.[14]

Very little has been written about the Garrison Battalions of World War I in post-war regimental histories. Battalions were disbanded within days of returning from service overseas and their four or five year existence was apparently regarded as of little consequence in regimental history. [15]. A diary, including a description of the journey to India of a “unit of middle-aged and medically downgraded men”, and letters home may be found in 1st Garrison Battalion The Manchester Regiment, India, Singapore, Hong Kong & Siberia by Robert Bonner

Garrison Battalions sent to India include the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Garrison Battalions, Bedfordshire Regiment, the 2nd Garrison Battalion, Essex Regiment, the 1st Garrison Battalion, Gordon Highlanders, the 1st Garrison Battalion, Manchester Regiment, the 2nd Garrison Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers, the 1st Garrison Battalion, Royal Irish Fusiliers, the 1st Garrison Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry and the 1st Garrison Battalion, South Staffordshire Regiment.

Special Service Battalions

Formed from April 1919 in India from drafts of demobilisees (from Mesopotamia) arriving by ship in Bombay. See "Mutiny in India 1919" for more details about these Battalions. One Special Service Battalion, No.17, served in the Third Afghan War

External links

Historical books online

Regular British Army troops in India

Indian Army troops in India

Indian Army troops were involved in actions on the North West Frontier.



At sea

During the First World War ships of the Royal Indian Marine carried troops and other war stores from India to Egypt, Mesopotamia and East Africa. When mines were detected off the coasts of Bombay and Aden during the First World War, the Royal Indian Marine went into action with a fleet of minesweepers, patrol vessels and troop carriers. The Royal Indian Marine also played a leading role in landing troops in Mesopotamia and their small river craft did very useful work on the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.[18]

Recommended reading

  • Yeats-Brown, Francis Lives of a Bengal Lancer . An autobiographical account of a Bengal Lancer covering the period from 1905 until the end of the First World War. Describes his deployment in India, France and Mesopotamia. See review in Biographies reading list. Also see Mesopotamia Campaign.
  • Spencer, William First World War army service records : a guide for family historians The National Archives, 2008 See Review in Military reading list.


British Library holdings

  • Also see Medal Rolls for British Library records in respect of rolls of honours and rewards.
  • IOR/L/MIL/14/142 1914-1921. Indian Army Officers Casualty Returns: Alphabetical lists of casualties by death among British officers of the Indian Services in the Great War giving rank, age, unit, date, place and cause. Possibly may provide information additional to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission database information (refer below). British Library article about these records, which indicates Warrant Officer (Conductor) deaths are included.
  • IOR/L/MIL/15/22 British Army in India: Burial returns of officers and others in India, 1914-1918. Also available on LDS microfilm 2029981 (Ordering microfilms). Possibly may provide information additional to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission database information (refer below)
  • IOR/L/MIL/7/17154-18939 Collection 425 First World War 1914-1918 ‎ (1914-1920)
  • IOR/L/MIL/17/5/245-299 1903-1947. Military Department Library: Indian Army Orders. Includes volumes coving the war years from IOR/L/MIL/17/5/256 1914
  • IOR/L/MIL/17/5/2380-2420 Military Department Library: Indian Army First World War - General ‎ (1914-1931)
  • IOR/L/MIL/17/5/2421-4246 1914-1921. Military Department Library: Indian Army First World War - War Diaries. These volumes include Indian Army Casualty Returns, explained in the British Library article "Finding Indian soldiers who served in World War One".
  • The Military Department Library also contains items relating to the First World War catalogued according to regions including IOR/L/MIL/17/15/41-138 Iraq ‎ (1914-1944)
  • History of the Great War based on official documents by direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence. Consists of 108 volumes published 1920-1949. The different volumes are explained in this link from Some volumes are available online.
  • An account of the operations of the 18th (Indian) Division in Mesopotamia, December 1917 to December 1918, with the names of all the units which served with the division and a nominal roll of all the officers by Walter Edward Wilson-Johnston 1919.
  • See also Temporary Commissions & Indian Army Reserve of Officers 1917-1921, above
  • See also Indian Army

The National Archives

Included in the many records held at the National Archives Kew is the series WO 95 - War Office: First World War and Army of Occupation War Diaries.

Some War Diaries, many of which are handwritten, have been digitised and are available (on a pay basis) online from various sources: from the National Archives through the Discovery catalogue[19], from Naval and Military Archive (Western Front only)[20], part of Naval & Military Press, which also publishes print and DVD-ROM versions, and through Ancestry which contains two databases "UK, WWI War Diaries (France, Belgium and Germany), 1914-1920" and "UK, WWI War Diaries (Gallipoli and Dardanelles), 1914-1916", containing selected war diaries only.[21] The Ancestry databases also contain War Diaries for some Indian, Australian, New Zealand, and other regiments. Transcribed Gallipoli Diaries edited by Martin Gillott. publisher Great War Diaries, for British and some Indian Army regiments, and some Western Front war diaries from the same editor/publisher, are available in Kindle editions which have a Search facility (anyone with Kindle Unlimited can read them for free). (Download of a free Kindle App is available, you don't need Kindle).

The Australian War Memorial website[22] contains Australian and New Zealand Army War diaries (available for free).

  • Details of War Diaries available at the National Archives, Kew, UK for Indian Army Regiments.
Category:India including Category:All Indian units The website also includes pages in respect of British, American, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand and other units.
WO 95/5484: 1915 Nov. - 1920 Mar., WO 95/5485: 1920 May - 1921 Dec., WO 95/5486: 1922 Jan.-Dec.


Findmypast, a pay website, contains a database "British Red Cross Register Of Overseas Volunteers 1914-1918" (located in Armed forces & conflict/Regimental & service records). This database also contains records for members of other volunteer organisations: Friends Ambulance Unit (FAU), First Aid Nursing Yeomanry (FANY), Order of St. John Ambulance, Scottish Women’s Hospital, Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD) and Liverpool Merchants’ Hospital.
  • The Friends Ambulance Unit was set up by Quakers in the UK during World War I. The personnel records from this service are now available to search online. Library of the Religious Society of Friends, London.

Related articles

External links

History of the Great War Wikipedia.
Digital First World War Resources: Online Official Histories — The War At Sea And In The Air by Dr Robert T Foley
"Indian Labour Corps" by Radhika Singha.
"North East India and the First World War" by Pratap Chhetri February 4, 2016. The Indian Labour Corps: Lushai Labour Corps, Khasi Labour Corps, Garo Labour Corps, Naga Labour Corps, Manipur Labour Corps and enlistments from Tripura. These men served on the Western Front, in Mesopotamia and in Egypt. "The Centre for Hidden Histories" [WW1]

Historical books online

  • History of the Great War Based on Official Documents: Military Operations. See the various Fronts mentioned below.
  • Medical Services
History of the Great War Based on Official Documents: Medical Services; General History by G W Macpherson Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3 includes Egypt and Palestine, Volume 4 includes Mesopotamia, Gallipoli, Salonika, East Africa. Published 1921-1924.
Other books in this series: Medical Services: Diseases of the War Volume I, Volume II; Medical Services: Surgery of the War Volume I, Volume II; Medical Services: Pathology 1922-1923
Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War 1914-19 : The Medical Services by Sir Andrew MacPhail 1925 Includes page 295 “In Foreign Parts”
Official History of the Australian Army Medical Services, 1914–1918 in three volumes. Australian War Memorial. Volume III Special Problems and Services 1943., Digital Library of India Collection.
Memoranda on some medical diseases in the Mediterranean war area, with some sanitary notes HMSO 1916
History of the Great War Based on Official Documents: Medical Services: Casualties and Medical Statistics of the Great War by Major T. J. Mitchell and Miss G. M. Smith. 1931 Hathi Trust Digital Library
Military Psychiatry in Peace and War by C Stanford Reid 1920
The Psychoneuroses of War by Dr G Roussy and J Lhermitte, translated from the original French by W B Christopherson. 1918
A Surgeon in Khaki by Arthur Anderson Martin 1915 Includes the process of the author’s commission, description of a Field Ambulance structure.
Women as Army Surgeons; being the history of the Women's Hospital Corps in Paris, Wimereux and Endell Street, September 1914-October 1919 by Flora Murray 1920
One Hundred Years of Army Nursing : The Story of the British Army Nursing Service from the time of Florence Nightingale to the present day by John Hay Beith 1953 Contains chapters on WW1.
The Great Munition Feat, 1914-1918 by George A B Dewar 1921
  • The War in the Air: being the story of the part played in the Great War by the Royal Air Force. Volume I by Walter Raleigh 1922. Volumes II-VI by H A Jones 1928-1937. Part of the series History of the Great War based on official documents. Volume I, Volume II (including Gallipoli), Volume III (inc East Africa), Volume IV, Volume V (inc Egypt/Palestine, Mesopotamia, Macedonia), Volume VI (inc Palestine, Mesopotamia, India)
  • The U S Air Service in WWI Volume 1, with links to 3 other volumes.
  • History of the Great War based on Official Documents: Naval Operations.Volumes I-III by Sir Julian Stafford Corbett, Volumes IV-V by Henry Newbolt. Published 1920-1931. and Hathi Trust (Vol. V): Volume I, Volume II, includes Gallipoli. Volume III Includes Gallipoli and Mesopotamia. Volume IV , includes Mesopotamia. Volume V. has transcribed editions which additionally contain maps from a separate case for Volumes II and III.
History of the Great War based on Official Documents: The Merchant Navy by Archibald Hurd 1921-1929. Volume I, Volume II, Volume III is available as a transcribed edition on
Books by E. Keble Chatterton, late Lieutenant-Commander RNVR : Q-Ships and their Story 1923 Q-ship Wikipedia. Q-Ships were armed ships, originally merchant ships, designed to lure submarines into making surface attacks. Danger Zone; the Story of the Queenstown Command 1934 Hathi Trust Digital Library. Seas of Adventures: the Story of the Naval Operations in the Mediterranean, Adriatic, and Aegean [1914-1918] 1936 Hathi Trust Digital Library. Also see Gallipoli and East Africa (First World War).
Eyewitness. Being Personal Reminiscences of Certain Phases of the Great War, Including the Genesis of the Tank by Major-General Sir Ernest D Swinton, R E (Retired) 1933 Hathi Trust Digital Library
There are additional online Tank books linked on the page Western Front.
These volumes appear to have most, but not all, of the content of the (weekly?) periodical The War Illustrated (, archived) which in turn was republished in at least nine volumes, which however do not appear to be available online.
  • The Great War. The Standard History of the All-Europe conflict: Volume 9 Edited by H. W. Wilson and J A Hammerton 1917. “Profusely illustrated” . Hathi Trust Digital Library. A series of 10 volumes, most of which are available on Hathi Trust Digital Library, restricted to North America etc readers.
  • The Story of the Great War. Published by Collier and Son, New York in sixteen volumes. Scroll down to Contents outline. There is an associated eight volume series, (perhaps condensed to 80%, with fewer illustrations) with some editions titled The Story of the Great War. History of the European War from Official Sources. Complete Historical Record of Events to date. Edited by Francis J Reynolds and Allen L Churchill , published c 1916-1920.
Sixteen volume series, mostly Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3; Vol. 4 (includes The Dardanelles); Vol. 5; Vol. 6; Vol. 7; Vol. 8; Vol. 9 (includes Mesopotamia, East Africa); Vol. 10; Vol. 11; Vol. 12; Vol. 13, (includes Palestine); 14; 16 Hathi Trust Digital Library
Eight volume series Vol.1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3 (includes the Dardanelles); Vol. 4 (includes Mesopotamia); Vol. 5 (includes Mesopotamia, East Africa); Vol. 6; Vol. 7 (includes Palestine and Mesopotamia); Vol. 8
  • The Great War by George H Allen et al. 1915-1921. v. 1. Causes of and motives for.--v. 2. The mobilization of the moral and physical forces.--v. 3. The original German plan and its culmination.--v. 4. The wavering balance of forces. --v. 5. The triumph of democracy. First Volume, Index; Second Volume, Index; Third Volume, Index; Fourth Volume, Index; Fifth Volume, Index
  • The Great World War: A History. General Editor Frank A Mumby. Published 1915-1920.
Volume I

To December 1914

Volume I

To April 1915

Volume III

To August 1915

Volume IV

To December 1915

Volume V

To May 1916

Volume VI 1917

To February 1917

Volume VII 1919

To February 1918

Volume VIII

To November 1918

Volume IX1920


Index- All Volumes

  • The Times Documentary History of the War published 1917-1920
Volume I Diplomatic-Part 1 Volume II Diplomatic-Part 2

Index Vols I, II

Volume III Naval- Part 1


Volume IV Naval-Part 2


Volume V Military- Part 1


Volume VI Overseas-Part 1


Volume VII Naval-Part 3


Volume VIII Military- Part 2


Volume IX Diplomatic-Part 3


Volume X Overseas-Part 2


Volume XI Naval-Part 4


  • Current History: A Monthly Magazine of the New York Times. Initial volumes also had the title The European War. A similar series issued quarterly (same content) included the title European War for all quarterly volumes up to Volume XX to October 1920.
Volume I From the Beginning to March 1915


Volume II April 1915-September 1915


Volume III October 1915-March 1916

Table of Contents and Index

Volume IV April-September 1916


Volume V October 1916-March 1917

Index Part 1-Index Part 2

Volume VI April-September 1917

Index Part 1-Index Part 2

Volume VII October 1917-March 1918

Index Part 1-Index Part 2

Volume VIII April-September 1918

Index Part 1-Index Part 2

Volume IX October 1918-March 1919

Index Part 1-Index Part 2

Volume X April-September 1919

Index Part 1-Index Part 2

Volume XI October 1919-March 1920


Volume XII No Index.
Volume XIII October 1920- March 1921


Volume XIV April-September 1921


Volume XV October 1921-March 1922


Volume XVI April-September 1922


The final volume of the quarterly series of the same monthly magazines, Volume XX of the quarterly series, appears to be an update of the earlier periods and may include content which is not included in the half yearly volumes. The content for the quarterly series up to June 1919 appears to be identical to the half yearly volumes. Volume XX July 1919-October 1920, Cumulative Index of the quarterly series. At least some of the quarterly editions are available on
  • Source Records of the Great War, edited by Charles F Horne 1923. Also published in a later edition as The Great Events of the Great War. Seven volumes: The Causes, 1914, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1918-1919
  • Official German Documents relating to the World War, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 1923. Volume I, Volume II Pdf downloads, Digital Repository of GIPE, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics [Pune].
  • Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, Supplement, The World War, a publication of the US Department of State, is available for the following years (scroll down): 1914; 1915; 1916; 1917, Supplement 1, Supplement 2, the latter Volumes I and II (total 3 Volumes for 1917); 1918, Supplement 1 (Volumes I and II), Supplement 2 (total 3 Volumes for 1918)
A text version, which is searchable, is available on the US Department of State: Office of the Historian website, currently (April 2016) for 1914, 1915 and 1916 only, but the intention is to include all editions.
Papers relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. The Lansing papers, 1914–1920 (in two volumes): United States Government Printing Office Washington 1939 and 1940. Transcribed, searchable editions from Office of the Historian: Volume I, Volume II. Digitised editions: Volume I, Volume II Robert Lansing was a lawyer, diplomat, Secretary of State during the Wilson Administration, and member of the American mission to negotiate a peace treaty following World War I.
  • Blackwood’s Magazine, sometimes shortened to Maga. (Earlier editions were titled Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine) Contains many war related articles.
Vol. 197, 1915:1, Vol. 198, 1915:2, Vol. 199, 1916:1, Vol. 200, 1916:2, Vol. 201, 1917:1, Vol. 202, 1917:2, Vol. 203, 1918:1, Vol. 204, 1918:2, Vol. 205, 1919:1, Vol. 206, 1919:2, Vol. 207, 1920:1, Vol. 209, 1921:1, Vol. 210, 1921:2, Vol. 211, 1922:1, Vol. 212, 1922:2. For those in North America etc, Hathi Trust Digital Library and Google Books Vol. 196 and Vol. 208


  1. "The Indian Divisions of 1914-1918" The Long, Long Trail. The British Army of 1914-1918 - for family historians accessed 18 Feb 2014
  2. "Some Comments on stereotypes of the Anglo-Indians: Part II" by Megan Stuart Mills from the International Journal of Anglo-Indian Studies 1996, quoting
    • Abel, Evelyn. (1988). The Anglo-Indian Community. Chanakya Publications: Delhi.
    • Dover, Cedric. (1937). Half-Caste. London: Martin, Secker and Warburg.
    • Thomas, David A. (1982). Lucknow and Kanpur, 1880-1920: Stagnation and Development under the Raj. South Asia. 5, 68-80.
  3. "Christopher Hawes in Conversation with Glenn D'cruz" in The International Journal of Anglo-Indian Studies Volume 3, Number 1, 1998.
  4. "Loyalty, Parity, and Social Control-The Competing Visions on the Creation of an ‘Eurasian’ Military Regiment in late British India" by Satoshi Mizutani The International Journal of Anglo-Indian Studies Volume 10, No. 1, 2010, quoting
    • [25] Anonymous (ed.), The Anglo-Indian Force (Allahabad, 1918), p.40. This book, by C T Robbie, is available in the India Office Records at the British Library IOR/L/MIL/17/5/4318
  5. Territorial Force Wikipedia accessed 18 Feb 2014
  6. 6.0 6.1 The 43rd (Wessex) Division “The Long, Long Trail”. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  7. The 44th (Home Counties) Division “The Long, Long Trail”. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  8. The 45th (2nd Wessex) Division “The Long, Long Trail”. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  9. Page 96,The History of the Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert’s) 1914-1919 by Everard Wyrall 1927.
  10. Khyber Pass 1/5th Royal West Surrey, Murree, Aug 1916 Great War Forum 27 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015
  11. Great War Forum post
  12. ddycher [Dave] Garrison Bn's to India 1917 Great War Forum 31 May 2015 Retrieved 31 May 2015
  13. ddycher Garrison Bn's to India 1917 Great War Forum 6 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015
  14. Frogsmile Sgt William Connelly, 1st Batt Gordon Highlders, NW Frontier Victorian Wars Forum 26 March 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  15. Great War Forum post 20 January 2013 by 'themonsstar'
  16. Royal Sussex Regiment “The Long, Long Trail”. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  17. Alexandra, Princess of Wales’s Own (Yorkshire Regiment) (“Green Howards”) “The Long, Long Trail”. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
  18. Abstract of a paper "Royal Indian Marine in the First World War" by Kalesh Mohanan presented at the India And The Great War Conference at The United Service Institution of India, New Delhi: 5-7 March 2014, now an archived webpage
  19. Discovery catalogue
  20. Naval and Military Archive
  21. UK, WWI War Diaries (France, Belgium and Germany), 1914-1920 consisting of WO 95/1096–3948 records. However, within this series, there appears to be a further selection of diaries available - not all are included. Also UK, WWI War Diaries (Gallipoli and Dardanelles), 1914-1916 consisting of WO 95/4263-4359 records. Similarly, not all diaries within this range may have been included. Ancestry.
  22. Australian Imperial Force unit war diaries, 1914-18 War
  23. Muerrisch [Langley, David]. level of fitness needed for service Great War Forum 14 November 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2016.