Salonica and the Balkans (First World War)

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Alternative spelling

Salonica, Salonika

Histories

Official History

Military Operations Macedonia compiled by Captain Cyril Falls

Volume I: From the Outbreak of War to the Spring of 1917
Volume II: From the Spring of 1917 to the End of the War.

Part of the series: History of the Great War based on Official Documents. First published 1933-1935, London by HMSO, with later reprints, including a 1996 edition by the Imperial War Museum/Battery Press.

Reprint editions[1] are available online on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3, refer below.

Some of the maps from these two volumes are available online. The French Official History is available online. Refer Historical books online, below.

Regimental and Corps Histories

  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery : the Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914-18 by Sir Martin Farndale 1988. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01008145796
  • History of the Corps of Royal Engineers Volume VI: Gallipoli, Macedonia, Egypt and Palestine 1914-18 edited by H.L. Pritchard 1952. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01008913272. Reprint edition 1993 UIN: BLL01007823630 . Also available from the Institution of Royal Engineers (InstRE), as a book or part of a CD-ROM.[2]

Italy

The Apulia region of Italy was used as a rest area for British troops serving in the Salonika campaign. There were several rest camps there, as well as Base Hospitals and stores depot.[3]

The British Salonika Force and the Army of the Black Sea

Immediately after the Armistice with Turkey orders had been issued for British troops to move to the Caucasus, due to the situation there. Troops were sent from the nearest British forces available, from the Salonika Force, and from North Persia [Mesopotamia Force]. Subsequently all troops came under control of the British Salonika Force, which later became known as the Army of the Black Sea, with Headquarters at Constantinople.[4]

See Norperforce for these actions.

War Diaries at the National Archives, Kew

War Diaries at the National Archives, Kew include the category "Part V: Salonika, Macedonia, Turkey Black Sea, Caucasus and South Russia". The record series ranges from WO 95/4756 to WO 95/4964 This series of War Diaries does not appear to have been digitised.

Aviation articles

  • "HMS Canning and 7 Kite Balloon Section (RNAS) at Salonika" by Ian Burns, The New Mosquito #35 : April 2017. Edited from the following article, but with additional information "Kite Balloons at Sea: Gallipoli and Salonika 1915-16" by Ian Burns Cross and Cockade International Journal (Vol. 46, Number 1) Spring 2015. 1st page of CCI article
  • "Diary of Harry J.E. Burtenshaw 45040, 27 Kite Balloon Section, Royal Flying Corps, Part V" by Graham Fullalove The New Mosquito #35 : April 2017. Parts I-II-III Issues 30-31-32. Part IV not known, but probably 33 or 34.

External links

Select Bibliography. Archived 2007 page Salonika Campaign Society
  • Salonika Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC)
Salonika: The Forgotten Front. Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC), now an archived webpage.
"Some forgotten Indians speak of the Great War" Details of a school project, with links to a slideshow. Although the text is in Greek, the slideshow contains photographs. elinepa.org

Prisoners of War

"First World War Central Power Prison Camps" by Kenneth Steuer 1-1-2013 History Faculty Publications, Western Michigan University . Includes Bulgarian Prison Camps
  • Prisoners of War in Bulgaria during the First World War A dissertation submitted as part of the Tripos Examination in the Faculty of History, Cambridge University, April 2012. No author is given on the paper but elsewhere the author is given as Rumen Cholakov. This is a link to a pdf download. Once downloaded, depending on your browser, you may need to look in your download folder.The camp at Plovdiv [Philippopolis, Philippoupolis] housed all British and most French prisoners from 1916 onwards.
  • Prisoners of War and Internees (South East Europe) by Bogdan Trifunović. encyclopedia.1914-1918. Briefly mentions British POWs in Bulgaria.
  • Plovdiv Central Cemetery, Bulgaria. Contains Commonwealth War Graves from several sites. ww1cemeteries.com
findmypast introduced a database in March 2017, "British Army, Plovdiv Military Cemetery Burials"[5], perhaps from the previously mentioned website, with images of the graves.
  • Also see Prisoners of the Turks (First World War) for an indication of the types of records which may be available, including the National Archives records FO 383. In particular FO383/370 contains an informative file 4 inches thick.[6]

Maps online

Historical books online

"Despatch from Lieutenant -General G.F. Milne dated 1st October 1917" The London Gazette. Publication date:13 November 1917 Supplement: 30380 Page: 11779
"Despatch from General Sir G.F. Milne dated 1st December 1918" The London Gazette. Publication date: 21 January 1919 Supplement: 31139 Page: 1169
Despatch from General Sir G.F. Milne, a one page supplement to the despatch dated 1st December 1918 The London Gazette. Publication date: 14 October 1919 Supplement: 31600 Page:12733
  • French Official Histories: Les Armées françaises dans la Grande Guerre sga.defense.gouv.fr. French language. Includes: Tome VIII. La campagne d'Orient (Dardanelles et Salonique) in three volumes: Premier volume.La campagne d'Orient jusqu'à l'intervention de la Roumanie (février 1915 - août 1916); Deuxième volume. La campagne d'Orient depuis l'intervention de la Roumanie en août 1916 jusqu'en avril 1918; Troisième volume. La campagne d'Orient, d'avril 1918 à décembre 1918. There are maps (Cartes) and panoramic sketches (Croquis panoramiques).
  • German semi Official History: Herbstschlacht in Macedonien, Cernabogen 1916 by Georg Strutz 1925. Band [Volume] 5 in the series Schlachten des Weltkrieges. Oö. Landesbibliothek, the Digital State Library of Upper Austria. German language. With maps and photographs which may be located by clicking on the Thumbnail gallery. Archive.org version 1921, where it is classified as Heft [Issue] 3.
  • Official History of Austria-Hungary: Österreich-Ungarns Letzter Krieg, 1914-1918 Chief Editor Edmund Glaise-Horstenau. In seven volumes, each with a supplementary volume (Beilagen/Beil) of Maps, and a final volume of miscellaneous appendices (Registerband). Oö. Landesbibliothek, the Digital State Library of Upper Austria. German language.
  • History of the Great War: Medical Services: General History, Volume IV by G W Macpherson 1924. Includes Salonika. Archive.org
Also in this series: Medical Services: Diseases of the War Volume I, Includes Malaria. Archive.org.
Memoranda on some medical diseases in the Mediterranean war area, with some sanitary notes HMSO 1916. Archive.org
"Typhus Fever" page 133 History of the Great War: Medical Services: Diseases of the War Volume I Archive.org
Typhus Fever: with particular reference to the Serbian Epidemic by Richard P Strong, Director of the American Red Cross and International Sanitary Commissions to Serbia. 1920 Archive.org
Anti-malaria Work in Macedonia among British Troops by W G Willoughby 1918. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
Salonika Diary 1915-1918. (Harold Arthur) Thomas Fairbank was an Officer in the Royal Army Medical Corps. His unit was moved to Macedonia to serve in Struma valley, and he was appointed consulting surgeon to the British Salonika Force. From the Fairbank Papers, University of Cambridge Digital Library. Typed manuscript, photographs etc.
Fifty Thousand Miles on a Hospital Ship by “The Padre” [Charles Steel Wallis] 1917 Archive.org. The hospital ship that Padre Wallis joined in 1915 was most likely the 'Goorkha'.[7] The ship arrived in Salonika from page 268 by which time the ship was a British Hospital Ship (previously Indian Hospital Ship).
The Balkan Cockpit, the political and military story of the Balkan Wars in Macedonia by W H Crawfurd Price 1915 Archive.org
Light on the Balkan Darkness by Crawfurd Price 1915 Archive.org
The Dawn of Armageddon or The provocation by Serbia, (vide German note to neutrals, Jan. 11, 1917) by Crawfurd Price 1917 Archive.org
The Role of Serbia. A brief account of Serbia's place in world politics and her services during the war by Crawfurd Price, formerly Correspondent of the Times with the Serbian Army. 1918 Archive.org
Serbia's Part in the War, Volume I: The Rampart against Pan-Germanism being the political and military story of the Austro-Serbian campaigns by Crawfurd Price 1918. Archive.org. This appears to have been the only volume published.
From Serbia to Jugoslavia: Serbia's Victories, Reverses and Final Triumph, 1914-1918 by Gordon Gordon-Smith 1920 Archive.org.
"With the First Red Cross Mission to Serbia". Extract from Chapter X , Surgeon's Journey by James Johnston Abraham, in charge of The First British Red Cross Serbian Mission in 1915. vlib.us
The Luck of Thirteen : Wanderings and Flight through Montenegro and Serbia by Mr and Mrs Jan Gordon 1916 Archive.org. Jan was acting as engineer to Dr Berry’s Serbian Mission from the Royal Free Hospital, and his wife Jo was a V A D. After six months they took a holiday, leaving with two knapsacks.
The Flaming Sword in Serbia and Elsewhere by Mrs St. Clair Stobart 1916 Archive.org The author organized and directed a hospital for the Serbian Relief Fund
My diary in Serbia, April 1, 1915-Nov. 1, 1915 by Monica M Stanley, attached to the Stobart Field Hospital in Serbia. 1916 Archive.org
Letters from a Field Hospital by Mabel Dearmer 1915 Archive.org. The husband of author Mabel Dearmer was appointed as Chaplain to the British units in Serbia, so she volunteered as an orderly with the Stobart Serbian Unit. She died at Kragujevatz of typhoid fever July 1915.
The Retreat from Serbia through Montenegro and Albania by Olive M Aldridge 1916. The author was with the Serbian Relief Fund under Mrs Stobart from July 1915, until she reached London in December 1915. Archive.org
"The Great Retreat In Serbia In 1915" by M. I. Tatham. (Scroll down). First published in Everyman at War: Sixty Personal Narratives of the War edited by C. B. Purdom 1930. Miss M I Tatham served (1915) with Stobart Field Hospital (Serbian Relief Unit), Kraguyevatz, Serbia. edinburghs-war.ed.ac.uk, now an archived web page. Also at firstworldwar.com.
With our Serbian Allies by Lady Paget 1915 Archive.org. Report of Lady Paget’s Hospital, Serbian Relief Fund at Skopje c June 1915.
"Letter from Skopje Dec 18, 1915" by George B Logan, an American volunteer at Lady Paget’s Hospital, then in enemy hands. Pages 456-457 The Princeton Alumni Weekly, February 23, 1916. Google Books
A Farmer in Serbia by Ellen Chivers Davies. 1916 Hathi Trust Digital Library, accessible to those in some areas such as North America. An account of the nursing (not agricultural) experiences of the 2nd British Farmers Unit [so called because of the funding], Serbian Relief Fund. The author became a prisoner.
Report by Sir Ralph Paget ... on the Retreat of Part of the British Hospital Units from Serbia, October-December, 1915 with a Map. British Library Digital file. Also available on HathiTrust Digital Library
  • With Serbia into Exile; an American's Adventures with the Army that Cannot Die by Fortier Jones 1916 Archive.org. The author was initially (most likely) with the Columbia University Relief Expedition, for the relief of non combatants. These men were recruited as drivers - each to have an automobile for carrying supplies together with an English-speaking Serb to act as an interpreter. He subsequently joined the Christitch Mission at Valjevo, run by Mlle Anna Christitch, of the London Daily Express.
  • The Stricken Land: Serbia as we saw it by Alice and Claude Askew 1916 Archive.org. In 1915, both Alice and Claude Askew, who were authors, travelled to Serbia as part of a relief effort with a British field hospital that would be attached to the Second Serbian Army. They were also Special Correspondents for the British newspaper Daily Express. (Wikipedia)
  • "Serbia", page 79, Part Three: A History of the Scottish Women's Hospitals by Eva Shaw McLaren 1919 Archive.org, (from a microfilm copy).
"Diary of a Dresser of the Serbian Unit of the Scottish Women’s Hospital" by L E Fraser page 776 Blackwood’s Magazine, no 197 January-June 1915 Archive.org
At the Serbian Front in Macedonia by P E Stebbing 1917 Archive.org. The author was Transport Officer to a Unit of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals (The author had previously spent many years in the Indian Forest Service.)
Memories Of A Doctor In War And Peace by Isabel Hutton 1960. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India. She was also the author of With a Woman's Unit in Serbia, Salonika and Sebastopol published 1928. She was with Scottish Women's Hospitals. Isabel Emslie Hutton Wikipedia
  • Experiences of a Woman Doctor in Serbia by Dr Caroline Matthews 1916 Archive.org. The author worked independently in Serbia in a Military Hospital as a Red Cross doctor. She subsequently became a POW and was suspected of being a spy. Later in her captivity in Hungary she was placed with a group of fellow prisoners from a Scottish Women’s Hospitals Unit.
  • Under Three Flags; with the Red Cross in Belgium, France and Serbia by St. Clair Livingston and Ingeborg Steen-Hansen 1916 Archive.org
  • A Nation at Bay: What an American woman saw and did in suffering Serbia by Ruth S Farnam 1918 Archive.org. She initially worked at a hospital run by Madame Grouitch, an American married to a Serbian diplomat. Subsequently she joined a group connected with Prince and Princess Alexis where she was in charge of medical stores for hospitals in the area, Later she raised funds in England and America, and visited the American unit of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals at Ostrove.
  • Amelia Peabody Tileston and her canteens for the Serbs by Mary Wilder Tileston 1920 Archive.org.
  • Behind the Wheel of a War Ambulance by Robert Whitney Imbrie 1918 Archive.org. The author was a volunteer with the American Ambulance, in France and the Balkans, (Macedonia, Albania) where he was attached to the French “Army of the Orient” L’Armee Francaise d’Orient (French Expeditionary Force). The author was, or became, part of the American Field Service. Some extracts from this book are included in
"In the Orient" [Balkans], page 341 History of the American Field Service in France, “Friends of France", 1914-1917, Volume I. 1920. Archive.org
The Autobiography of a Woman Soldier: A Brief Record of Adventure with the Serbian Army 1916-1919 by Flora Sandes c 1927 Archive.org
Other chapters in this book contain information about troops who garrisoned Aegean islands Chapter 22 page 259 and Chapter 35 page 430
  • "Obstruction’s Gentle Art" by Douglas Walshe pages 433-449 Blackwood’s Magazine Volume 205, January-June 1919. Archive.org The start of the Salonika Campaign from 30 September 1915.
With the Serbs in Macedonia by Douglas Walshe 1920 Archive.org. The author was an officer with 708 Company M T, ASC, a Light Supply and Ammunition Column of Ford vans attached to the Serbian Army.
  • "The End of a Long Pause" by H R W page 491 Blackwood’s Magazine Volume 201 January-June 1917. Archive.org.
  • Macedonian Musings by V J [Vincent Julian] Seligman 1918 Archive.org. The author was an officer in the ASC, the Requisitioning or Purchasing Officer for the Xth Infantry Brigade (page 51).
The Salonica Side-show by V J Seligman 1919 Archive.org
Greek Memories by Compton Mackenzie 1939. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Also available to read online on scribd.com. This is the second edition published in 1939, with some content from the original 1932 edition deleted, due to the author's prosecution under the Official Secrets Act.
These two volumes are the 2nd and 3rd of a series of memoirs of the World War: v.1. Gallipoli Memories, (see Gallipoli); v.4. Aegean Memories (Review) The author served with British Intelligence in the Eastern Mediterranean during the First World War. Compton Mackenzie Wikipedia.
The American Red Cross Commission to Greece: Final report, Department of civilian relief, exclusive of the districts of the Aegean Islands and eastern Macedonia 1919
The American Red Cross Commission to Greece:Relief work in eastern Macedonia 1919
  • Serbia To Kut by Joseph T Parfit 1917. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Full title: Serbia to Kut: an account of the War in the Bible Lands [Balkans, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia]. An overview of the conflict. The author, then or subsequently, was Canon of St George’s Jerusalem.
  • Les Archives de la Grande Guerre [et de l'histoire contemporaine] French language. In 17 volumes, which have been digitised on Gallica, Bibliothèque nationale de France in 13 digital files. Volume 17, the final volume, contains a Contents section which appears to cover all 17 Volumes, click on the icon for Table des matières. Then scroll down to "Front d'Orient" for a number of accounts and articles on the Balkans and the Dardanelles, where you can click through to the relevant articles (which may be in volumes other than Volume 17). For more details of this publication, see Western Front.
  • Vocabularies: English, German, Magyar, Serbian, Bulgarian, Roumanian, Greek, Turkish Compiled by the Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division, Naval Staff, Admiralty. HMSO. 1920 Archive.org

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Macedonia Vol I. From the Outbreak of War to the Spring of 1917 and Macedonia Vol II. From the Spring of 1917 to the end of the war Naval & Military Press.
  2. Corps History and Corps History CD-ROM The Institution of Royal Engineers (InstRE)
  3. jeffward ‪ Gallipoli. Turkey Or Italy?‪‬ Who Do You Think You Are? Forum 22 November 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2015
  4. Gardenerbill. Salonika/Transcaspia/Army of Black Sea query Great War Forum 5 May 2016. It is advised further details may be found in Under the Devil's Eye: The British Military Experience in Macedonia 1915-18 by Alan Wakefield, pages 228 to 230. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  5. British Army, Plovdiv Military Cemetery Burials findmypast.
  6. voltaire60. BRITISH POWs IN BULGARIA- SOURCES Great War Forum 21 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
  7. frev. Norwegian Matron on Indian Hospital Ship Great War Forum 3 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.