Gallipoli

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The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey), from 17 February 1915 to 9 January 1916.[1]

Also see

War Diaries

Included in the many records held at the National Archives Kew is the series WO 95 - War Office: First World War and Army of Occupation War Diaries.

Some War Diaries, many of which are handwritten, have been digitised and are available (on a pay basis) online from the following sources: from the National Archives through the Discovery catalogue[2] and through Ancestry which contains the database "UK, WWI War Diaries (Gallipoli and Dardanelles), 1914-1916" (selected, and at times, part war diaries only)[3][4] (search hints[5]) (in addition to a Western Front database). The Ancestry database also contain War Diaries for some Indian, Australian and New Zealand Army regiments.
Transcribed (the handwriting has been deciphered for you!) (series title) Gallipoli Diaries, edited by Martin Gillott. publisher Great War Diaries, for British and Infantry Indian Army regiments, are available through Amazon.co.uk[6], in Kindle editions which have a Search facility (anyone with Kindle Unlimited can read them for free). (Download of a free Kindle App is available onto a PC, Mac or tablet - you don't need Kindle). The transcribed Indian Army Gallipoli Diaries are for Headquarters 29th Indian Infantry Brigade 1915 (includes Gurkhas and 14th King George’s Own Ferozepore Sikhs) and Gurkhas at Gallipoli 1915 (a combined edition 1/4th Gurkha Rifles 1915, 1/5th Gurkha Rifles (Frontier Force) 1915, 1/6th Gurkha Rifles 1915, 2/10th Bn Gurkha Rifles 1915, the latter four Diaries also available separately.

The Australian War Memorial website[7] contains Australian and New Zealand Army War diaries (available for free)

The British Library catalogue entry IOR/L/MIL/17/5/3951-3953 refers to "War diary, Army Headquarters India, Indian Expeditionary Force 'G' [Mediterranean]. GSI, 1915. 3 vols". There are further catalogue entries with reference to Indian Expeditionary Force G in IOR/L/MIL/17/5/3893 onwards "War diary, Army Headquarters India, Indian Expeditionary Force 'E'/'E' & 'G'/Egypt. GSI, 1914-19. 45 vol", with the note "13-38 = 'E' & 'G'". These records are printed volumes, not available online.

Regimental and Corps Histories

  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery : the Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914-18 by Sir Martin Farndale 1988. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01008145796

Aviation articles

  • There is a series of articles in Over the Front, Journal of the League of WWI Aviation Historians,[8] titled "Over The Wine Dark Sea, Aerial Aspects of the Dardanelles/Gallipoli Campaign". Initial three articles are in Volume 9, Number 1, 2, 3 (1994) by R D Layman, Ian Burns and Richard T Whistler. Part 2 is titled "Operations of HMS Ben-My-Chree, June 1915 - January 1916"; Part 3 "Turco-German Aviation"; Part 4: "The German Wasserfliegerabteilung" by Richard T. Whistler Volume 11, Number 2 (1996); Part 5, "The Defense of the Bosphorus and the Fokker Staffel" by Richard T. Whistler Volume 11, Number 3 (1996). (For library sources, see Royal Air Force - External links, including Imperial War Museums).
  • 'Kite Balloons at Sea: Gallipoli and Salonika 1915-16" by Ian Burns Cross and Cockade International Journal[9] (Vol. 46, Number 1) Spring 2015. 1st page of article
  • Further articles in Cross and Cockade International Journal are mentioned in the Great War Forum topic, "Avro ? at Imbros"[10], or search the Journal Index

External links

Sketches online

  • Crusading at Anzac A. D. 1915 pictured and described by Signaller Ellis Silas. A Soldier Artist serving with the Australian Imperial Forces. Published 1916. National Library of Australia. Note: it is possible to rotate the images, by the icon in the lower RHS of the book reader.
An artist at The Landing—Signaller Silas, with links to his biography, sketches and diary extracts (the latter, 2 webpages). anzacportal.dva.gov.au
  • Sketches by then Captain Leslie Gore from the State Library of NSW. Sketches at Gallipoli, 1915, catalogue reference PXE 702. There are some additional sketches of Gallipoli at the beginning of the series [World War I sketches], catalogue reference PXE 703. Click on the thumbnail images to enlarge. Download is possible.
A selection of these sketches is described in An artist at Gallipoli – Major Hore with his Biographical details. anzacportal.dva.gov.au. He was with 4th reinforcements for the 8th Australian Light Horse Regiment, joining the regiment at Gallipoli on 26 May 1915.

Maps online

Trench maps of Suvla (provisional) 1:10 000 series (Squares 134 & 135). To enlarge, click on "Interactive zoomable image (needs Flash)". British Library Online Gallery.
  • "World War, 1914-1918 -- Campaigns -- Turkey -- Gallipoli Peninsula -- Maps.". Select "All online" filter, right hand side of the webpage. 32 online maps from National Library of Australia.
  • "Gallipoli" page 109 A Military Atlas of the First World War by Arthur Banks 1975. Archive.org Lending Library.
  • Also see "Historical books online" which follows.
  • If you need additional maps, the Western Front Association, in association with the Imperial War Museums, has produced a Map DVD of more than 400 maps.[13]

Historical books online

Official histories, despatches, background etc

Miscellaneous No.14 (1914): Despatch from His Majesty's Ambassador at Constantinople summarising events leading up to Rupture of Relations with Turkey, and reply thereto. Presented to both Houses of Parliament December 1914. HMSO 1914 Archive.org
  • The Straits Trilogy by Geoffrey Miller 1996-1999.
Superior Force : the conspiracy behind the escape of Goeben and Breslau by Geoffrey Miller 1996 ISBN 0 85958 635 9;
Straits: British Policy towards the Ottoman Empire and the Origins of the Dardanelles Campaign by Geoffrey Miller 1997 ISBN 0 85958 663 4;
The Millstone: British Naval Policy in the Mediterranean, 1900-1914, the Commitment to France and British Intervention in the War by Geoffrey Miller 1999 ISBN 0 85958 690 1
Military Operations Galliopli Vol-I Maps And Appendices 1929 Spelling is as catalogued. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Note most of the maps are missing.
Military Operations Gallipoli Volume II. Full title: History of the Great War Based on Official Documents: Military Operations Gallipoli: Volume II May 1915 to the Evacuation. Links to a series of Chapter pdf downloads. Missing the Title page and Contents, Index is at the end of the book. STOU Digital Repository, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Thailand. Note, website has been noticed to be unavailable at times. Possibly may be open only during "office hours".
Maps from Military Operations: Gallipoli Volume II Maps and Appendices University of Toronto. Titled "The Third Battle of Krithia".
The Ancestry owned pay website fold3 includes an online book Gallipoli, (located in World War II/Military Books/Turkey) which consists of reprint editions from Naval & Military Press of the four volumes of Military Operations Gallipoli (being two volumes of text, and two volumes of appendices).
Official History of the Australian Army Medical Services, see Medical, below.
Official historical account of the Dardanelles Campaign by Genelkurmay Baskanligi [Chief of General Staff] Turkey English translation 1925. Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library [USA Army]. Typescript copy translated from the Turk by Captain Larcher; translated from the French by Captain E.M. Benitez, the French translation appearing in Les Archives de la Grande Guerre, Volume 17 page 129 and page 257, published 1924. (gallica.bnf.fr)
Online histories, Turkish language, from Ministry of National Defence, Republic of Turkey. Includes maps. Çanakkale Harbi Seris, Turkish language. Çanakkale War Series Google Translate English version of the website, (but not the histories). Includes item 6 Çanakkale Deniz Savaşı or Canakkale Sea Battle, and item 7 Birinci Dünya Harbi'nde Türk Harbi, Çanakkale Cephesi Harekâtı V. Cilt 1,2,3 Kitapların Özetlenmiş Tarihi or Turkish War in the First World War, Çanakkale Front Operation V. Volume 1,2,3. The latter is a summarised edition of three volumes. Direct pdf link for item 7, Turkish language.
  • Der Kampf um die Dardanellen 1915 Part of the series Schlachten des Weltkrieges. German language. The Digital State Library of Upper Austria. To view the photographs and maps, click on the Thumbnail gallery and select.
  • Gallipoli Diary by Sir Ian Hamilton 1920. Archive.org Volume I, Volume II. Volume II includes informative Appendices relating to Artillery and Instructions.
Sir Ian Hamilton’s Despatches from the Dardanelles 1915 Archive.org
Ian Hamilton’s Final Despatch 1916 Archive.org

General histories etc

  • Nelson’s History of the War by John Buchan. published 1915-1919, Volume 6, Volume 9 and Volume 12 contain chapters on Gallipoli. Archive.org.
Based on the above, but revised, largely rewritten and condensed A History of the Great War, Volume II by John Buchan 1923 Archive.org.
  • Gallipoli by John Masefield 1916 Archive.org
  • The Dardanelles by Major General Sir C E Callwell 1919 Archive.org. A book in the series "Campaigns and their Lessons".
Experiences of a Dug-Out, 1914-1918, by Major General Sir C E Callwell 1920 Archive.org. The author was appointed to the high ranking role of Director of Military Operations (DMO) at the War Office at the outbreak of the war. [Dug-Out: a retired officer, recalled to employment]. Includes "Chapter V: The Dardanelles", page 86.
"The Dardanelles, Chapter II" page 29 Last Changes Last Chances by Henry W. Nevinson 1928 Archive.org. Henry Nevinson Wikipedia.

Diplomacy, news correspondents etc in Turkey

"Chapter VII Diplomacy in Turkey" page 110 The Craft Sinister; a diplomatico-political history of the great war and its causes by George Abel Schreiner 1920 Archive.org. Includes Comments about Mr Lewis Einstein, refer book author, above, page 132.

Medical

The online JRAMC extracts are easier to read, but missing some parts. Gallipoli Chapters 5-9. Missing May 1936, Chapter 5, (available in main link from page numbered 349) 6-7 June 1936, 66 (6) 402-412; 8-9 July 1936, 67 (1) 58-66.

Corps histories and accounts

"Six Months in the Dardanelles" by Zachabona, page 141 Blackwood’s Magazine No 199, January-June 1916. Page 863 comment: Navy not responsible for blunder at Suvla Bay. Same edition Blackwood’s Magazine . Archive.org. The author has been identified as Robert Andrew Gibb, Army Service Corp, then Staff Serjeant Major, (SS/5246), (commissioned into the K.O.S.B. November 1915, subsequently killed in action at Gaza April 1917).[21] Gibb appears to have been part of a Base General Staff, mobilized at the Tower of London in February, which sailed from Avonmouth on the 'Dunluce Castle', arriving in Lemnos on 10 March 1915.[22]
  • Gallipoli Diary by Major John Graham Gillam, Army Service Corps. 1918 Archive.org
  • A History of the Army Ordnance Services, Volume III: The Great War by Major General Arthur Forbes 2nd edition 1932, first published 1929. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India. Includes a chapter on Gallipoli.
  • The Post Office of India in the Great War edited by H.A. Sams 1922 Archive.org. "The Dardanelles, Salonika and Constantinople 1915-1919" page 103.

Regimental histories and accounts

Indian Army
Australian Army
To Hell and Back : the banned account of Gallipoli by Sydney Loch Includes a bibliography by Susanna De Vries and Jake de Vries 2007. Archive.org Books to Borrow/Lending Library.
British Army
  • Suvla Bay and After by Juvenis, (pseud) (Lt O G E MacWilliam, 5th Bn Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, identified by Philip Orr in Field of Bones) 1916 Archive.org. The Battalion was part of the 30th Infantry Brigade, 10th (Irish) Division.
  • With a B.-P. Scout in Gallipoli; a Record of the Belton Bulldogs by E Y Priestman 2nd edition 1917, first published 1916. With sketches by the author, an officer in the 6th Battalion York and Lancaster Regiment, and former Scout Master, who was killed 18-19th November 1915, age 25. HathiTrust Digital Library.
  • The Irish at the Front by Michael MacDonagh 1916 Archive.org. Includes chapters on Gallipoli
The Tenth (Irish) division in Gallipoli by Bryan Cooper 1918 Archive.org.
Available on the pay website findmypast[24]. If signed in to findmypast, the links are Title page (image 4), Contents (image 12), The Dardanelles page 141 (image 158) - 6th (Service) Battalion).
Also available in a reprint edition[25], which in turn is available as an online book on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3.
Note the fold3 version is easier to read online than the findmypast version.
"Chaplain to the Forces in England and Gallipoli" page 121 Letters of Oswin Creighton, C.F., 1883-1918 edited by Louise Creighton 1920 Archive.org
  • From Gallipoli to Baghdad by William Ewing, Chaplain to the Forces 1917 Archive.org
  • Mons, Anzac and Kut by an MP (stated to be Aubrey Herbert) 1919 Archive.org
  • In the Side Shows by Captain Wedgewood Benn 1919 Archive.org. Some editions have the title In the Side Shows: Observations by a Flier on Five Fronts. The author was a Member of Parliament and joined the Middlesex Yeomanry, with whom he served at Gallipoli. He subsequently became military observer attached to the Royal Naval Air Service, East Indies and Egypt Seaplane Squadron.
  • With the Zionists in Gallipoli by Lieut. Col. J H Patterson 1916 Archive.org. The author was in command of the Zion Mule Corps.
Also see Fiction, below.
The First Five Hundred; being a historical sketch of the military operations of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment in Gallipoli and on the Western Front during the Great War (1914-1918) by Richard Cramm. Catalogued as published 1921. Archive.org
French Army
  • Uncensored letters from the Dardanelles written to his English Wife by a French Medical Officer of Le Corps Expeditionnaire D’Orient [Joseph Marguerite Jean Vassal] 1916 Archive.org. Book No. 4 in the series Soldiers’ Tales of the Great War. Elsewhere it is stated he was born in Talence, Gironde in 1867, and belonged to the 6th Colonial regiment. His wife, née Gabrielle Candler, was responsible for part of the translation.[26]
  • "With the Foreign Legion in Gallipoli" by Ex-Sergeant A. R. Cooper [Adolphe Richard (Dick)]. greatwardifferent.com, now an archived website. This is an extract from The Man who Liked Hell : Twelve Years in the French Foreign Legion by ex-Sergeant A. R. Cooper, in collaboration with Sydney Tremayne, 1933, (elsewhere stated to have been ghost written from his notes, available at the British Library UIN: BLL01000776161), as stated in the 1936 anthology Fifty amazing stories of the Great War, in which it also appeared.[27] Cooper also rewrote the 1933 book as March or Bust : Adventures in the Foreign Legion 1972 (BL UIN: BLL01009693296) which is considered more honest and valuable,[28] and wrote Born to Fight 1969 which is also an autobiography, (BL UIN: BLL01000776160). An account by Cooper is included in the 2016 publication In the Trenches: Those Who Were There edited by Rachel Bilton. A.R. (Dick) Cooper specialforcesroh.com, now archived. He served in Special Forces in WW2.
  • Les Archives de la Grande Guerre [et de l'histoire contemporaine] French language. In 17 volumes, which have been digitised on Gallica, Bibliothèque nationale de France in 13 digital files. Volume 17, the final volume, contains a Contents section which appears to cover all 17 Volumes, click on the icon for Table des matières. Then scroll down to "Front d'Orient" for a number of articles on the Balkans and the Dardanelles, where you can click through to the relevant articles (which may be in volumes other than Volume 17). For more details of this publication, see Western Front.
New Zealand Army
Turkish Army

In the Air

Naval

Also see above "Official History of the Medical Unit of the Royal Naval Division..."
  • At Antwerp and the Dardanelles by Rev. H.C. Foster [1918]. HathiTrust Digital Library, available full view to those in areas such as North America. Elsewhere it is advised Rev. Foster was a temporary chaplain with 2nd Royal Naval Brigade, Anson Battalion.
  • The Royal Naval Division by Douglas Jerrold 1923. Includes Gallipoli. National Library of Australia. The Division was under the authority of the Admiralty at Gallipoli.
The Hawke Battalion. Some personal records ... 1914-1918 by Douglas Jerrold 1925. Archive.org version, mirror from Digital Library of India.
Page 131 Georgian Adventure The Autobiography of Douglas Jerrold 1937 Archive.org
  • History of the Great War based on official documents: Naval Operations by Sir Julian Stafford Corbett Volume II, (1921), Volume III (1923) Archive.org. Naval-History.net has transcribed editions which additionally contain maps from a separate case for Volumes II and III.
Revised second editions were published: Volume 2 1929, with maps in pocket available at the British Library UIN: BLL01015219377 ; Volume 3 1940, whose dustjacket cover states "Important revisions" including in respect of the Dardanelles and Mesopotamia.[29]. A facsimile reprint of the 2nd edition of Volume 3 was reprinted by Imperial War Museum/Battery Press in 1995 UIN: BLL01011725482 and it is possible that the reprints available from Naval & Military Press, which are in turn available on the Ancestry owned pay website fold.3 contain the revised editions.

Fiction

  • The Secret Battle by A P Herbert 1919. Archive.org. One of three novels published in 1919 praised for its convincing account of war, and recommended by Churchill.[31] The first part of the book is set at Gallipoli, the latter part on the Western Front. The Secret Battle Librivox audio book by A P Herbert. Archive.org. A. P. Herbert Wikipedia.
  • "Legion of Lost Souls" by Captain W J Blackledge. “A vivid firsthand story of the tragic and Terrible Campaign at Gallipoli-The Peninsula of Death” From the deeply engraved memory of Digger Craven, Australian Trooper" Appeared in issues of the weekly magazine Liberty v13 n42 [1936-10-17] onwards.
Part 1, part 2 not available online; Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7, Part 8
Likely to be the text, or an abridged version, of Peninsula of Death, as told to W. J. Blackledge by Digger Craven. London, Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1937, which is accordingly also classified as fiction, although elsewhere classified as bibliography.[32], and also see comments on page 4 of ‘’The Listening Post’’ 15 March 1937 (RSL WA) …"appears to be a novel whose author delights in much sordid detail" from the Prime Minister’s Department. For a book about Digger Craven at a later time, see North West Frontier Campaigns - Historical books online - Fiction and for more about the author see Mesopotamia Campaign - Historical books online - Fiction.

References

  1. "Gallipoli Campaign" Wikipedia. Refer External links, above.
  2. Discovery catalogue
  3. UK, WWI War Diaries (Gallipoli and Dardanelles), 1914-1916 consisting of WO 95/4263-4359 records. Ancestry. It seem probable that not all records within this range are included, in line with the Western Front database which does not included all records in the specified range.
  4. stiletto_33853. Ancestry vs National Archives Great War Forum 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018. Ancestry diaries may have large parts (many months) missing compared to TNA files
  5. MrSwan. Ancestry war diaries Great War Forum 17 December 2017. Retrieved 18 December 2017.
  6. Gallipoli Diaries and Great War Diaries amazon.co.uk
  7. Australian Imperial Force unit war diaries, 1914-18 War
  8. Over the Front, The League of WWI Aviation Historians
  9. Cross and Cockade International
  10. b3rn. Avro ? at Imbros Great War Forum 21 February 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  11. Umeu et al. The French at Gallipoli Great War Forum 30 August 2018 et al. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  12. PassTHE knowledge by Akhi Soufyan
  13. Mapping the Front DVD Gallipoli Western Front Association.
  14. Order of Battle of Divisions by A.F. Becke Part 1,Parts 2A and 2B, Parts 3A and 3B, Part 4. Index by Ray Westlake. Naval & Military Press reprint editions.
  15. Greenwoodman. Official Inquiry into Conduct of WW1 Great War Forum 19 June 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  16. Report of the Committee on the Lessons of the Great War Naval & Military Press reprint edition.
  17. Buley, Ernest Charles (1869–1933) Australian Dictionary of Biography
  18. Page 59The Dardanelles Campaign, 1915: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography‬ by Fred R. Van Hartesveldt Google Books
  19. frev. Norwegian Matron on Indian Hospital Ship Great War Forum 3 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  20. michaeldr. Royal Engineers soldier abandoned in Gallipoli Great War Forum 29 June 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  21. Bryn et al. American captured in Turkish forces, Helles, 28 June 1915 Great War Forum 6 June 2020 onwards. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  22. Page from Chapter 2, Grasping Gallipoli: Terrain, Maps and Failure at the Dardanelles, 1915 by Peter Chasseaud, Peter Doyle. Google Books.
  23. June 2019 catalogue turnerdonovan.com.
  24. British Army Records & Regimental Histories located in Armed Forces & Conflict/Regimental & Service Records. findmypast. Click on 'Browse Title', select title, then click on 'View Results'.
  25. History of the Lincolnshire Regiment 1914-1918 Naval & Military Press
  26. "A Bibliography of Great War Medicine" vlib.us.
  27. other ranker. Fifty amazing stories of the Great War Great War Forum 1 April 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  28. Digital page PT846 from Our Friends Beneath the Sands: The Foreign Legion in France's Colonial Conquests 1870-1935 by Martin Windrow. Google Books
  29. MartH. Rarest book? post 869, page 35 Great War Forum 12 December 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  30. Navy In The Dardanelles Campaign Naval & Military Press
  31. Pages 51-52 English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918–39 by John Onions. Google Books
  32. Page 56, item 164 The Dardanelles Campaign, 1915: Historiography and Annotated Bibliography by Fred R van Hartesvelt Google Books