Awadh: A province of the Mughal Empire administered by a Nawab.
Modern name: Awadh
Variants: Oude, Oudh
History under the British
The British as the East India Company tried over a long period to strengthen their hold on the kingdom by manipulating the succession and imposing ever more onerous treaty obligations. British troops were provided for the internal and external protection of the state in return for a heavy subsidy. Eventually the Nawab was unable to pay his dues and was forced to cede the fort at Allahabad, then surrender Rohilkhand and the Lower Doab and take advice from a British Resident.
In 1837 the British again imposed a new ruler and a fresh treaty which allowed them to assume management of the state in the event of misrule. It was this treaty which gave the Marquess of Dalhousie the excuse to annexe the kingdom in 1856 and make it a British province. It is believed by many that it was this act and the subsequent harsh administration of the province that led to the Indian Mutiny. In 1877 the province was combined to become North-Western Provinces and Oudh (1877-1902), then in 1902 the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (1902-1921), then the name changed to United Provinces of British India.
Historical books online
- Gazetteer of the Province of Oudh 1877-1878 Volume 1 A-G, Volume 2 H-M, Volume 3 N-Z archive.org
- A hand-book to the English pre-mutiny records in the government record rooms of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh by Douglas Dewar c 1919 Archive.org
- North India Between Empires : Awadh, the Mughals, and the British, 1720-1801 by Richard B Barnett 1980. Archive.org Books to Borrow/Lending Library.
- Observations on the Mussulmauns of India : descriptive of their manners, customs, habits and religious opinion made during a twelve years' residence in the immediate society by Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali. Edited with notes and an introduction by W. Crooke 1917. The authors background is unclear, other than that she was an English lady of high social rank, who married in England c 1816, see the Introduction. Page ix. Originally published 1832. Volume I, Volume II. Archive.org.
- Narrative of the Mutinies in Oude. Compiled from Authentic Records by Captain George Hutchinson, Bengal Engineers, Military Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, Oude 1859 Google Books
- A history of the Sepoy war in India, 1857-1858 Vol I by John William Kaye Annexation of Oude archive.org
- The Raj, the Indian Mutiny and the Kingdom of Oudh, 1801-1859 by John Pemble 1977 Archive.org Books to Borrow/Lending Library.