Gurkha War

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Also known as the Anglo-Nepalese, or Nepalese War, or the Anglo-Nepal, or Nepal War (Nepaul War)

Summary

Gurkha War
1814-16
Chronological list of Wars and Campaigns
[[Image:|250px| ]]
Location: Nepal
Combatants:
East India Company Nepal
Result: British victory
Medals: Army of India Medal 1799-1826, Clasp: Nepaul
Links:
Category: Gurkha War
Battlemappic.gif See our interactive map of
the Gurkha War First Campaign
locations and routes on Google Maps
Battlemappic.gif See our interactive map of
the Gurkha War Second Campaign
locations and routes on Google Maps

In the latter part of the 18th century the Gurkhas overran all of eastern Nepal, parts of Sikkim and in the west the Kumaon region. The British had recently taken over the Kingdom of Oudh and perceived a threat to their expansionist ambitions. They mounted a first campaign using four columns on two fronts starting on 1 November 1814. Poor leadership by three of the commanders led to early defeats by the Gurkhas. Colonel David Ochterlony's determination and skill proved decisive however, and the Gurkhas were forced to surrender after the fall of Almora in April 1815.

The Kathmandu government failed to ratify the treaty signed on 28 November 1815 and this led to a second campaign. Once again Ochterlony, with assistance from the King of Sikkim in the east, forced the Nepalese Army onto the defensive and after the Battle of Makwanpur the Gurkhas ratified the Treaty of Sugauli on 4 March 1816. Nepal ceded Sikkim, Kumaon and Garhwal together with a large part of the Terai lowlands.

Biographies

Entries in the Dictionary of Indian Biography 1906
William Gardner (1770-1835)
Robert Gillespie (1766-1814)
Hyder Young Hearsey (1766-1814)
Richard Kelly (1782/3-1840)
Gabriel Martindell (1755-1831)
David Ochterlony (1758-1825)

Field Forces 1814-15

Major-General Robert Rollo Gillespie's Column

  • 1,000 European troops
  • 2,500 Native Infantry

Colonel David Ochterlony's Column

  • 6,000 Native Infantry and Artillery
  • Two 18-pounders
  • Ten 6-pounders
  • Four mortars and howitzers

Major-General John Sullivan Wood's Column

  • Seven 6 and 3-pounders
  • Four mortars and howitzers

Major-General Marley's Column

  • 8,000 troops
  • 907 HM 24th Foot
  • 2,000 Native Infantry
  • Four 18-pounders
  • Eight 6-pounders
  • Fourteen mortars and howitzers

Field Force 1816

Commanded by Maj Gen Sir David Ochterlony
Right Column
1st Brigade, Colonel Richard Kelly, 24th Foot

Military unit Rifles
HM 24th Foot 849
1st Btn,18th Native Infantry 747
1st Btn, 21st Native Infantry 390
2nd Btn, 21st Native Infantry 437
Chumparun Light Infantry 1,246
Total 3,669

Centre Column
3rd Brigade, Lt-Col Miller, 39th Foot, 24th Foot
4th Brigade, Col Dick, 39th Foot, 9th Native Infantry

Military unit Rifles
HM 24th Foot 876
2nd Btn, 4th Native Infantry 784
2nd Btn, 8th Native Infantry 784
2nd Btn, 9th Native Infantry 810
2nd Btn, 12th Native Infantry 894
2nd Btn, 15th Native Infantry 805
2nd Btn, 22nd Native Infantry 860
2nd Btn, 25th Native Infantry 815
1st Btn, 13th Native Infantry 425
Total 7,053

Left Column
2nd Brigade, Lt-Col Nicoll Kelly, 66th Foot

Military unit Rifles
HM 66th Foot 762
5th Grenadier Battalion 627
8th Grenadier Battalion 688
1st Btn, 8th Native Infantry 724
2nd Btn, 18th Native Infantry 744
Total 3,545
Grand Total 14,267

External Links

Gurkha War 1814-16 Wikipedia
Army of India Medal www.britishmedals.info

Historical books online

  • Military Sketches of the Goorka War, in India, in the Years 1814, 1815, 1816 1822 Google Books
  • Nepal Frontier and Overseas Expeditions from India: Volume 4 North and North-Eastern Frontier tribes by Intelligence Branch Army Headquarters India 1907 Archive.org
  • "Nepaul War" page 127 Considerations on the state of British India, embracing the subjects of colonization; missionaries; the state of the press; the Nepaul and Mahrattah wars; the civil government; and Indian Army by Lieutenant A. White, of the Bengal Native Infantry. 1822. Hathi Trust Digital Library
  • Papers Respecting the Nepaul War printed by the East India Company 3rd March 1824 Google Books