Punjab referred to the areas between the five rivers which were Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej and which were the territory of the Sikh Empire. The present Punjab region covers the area of the two modern states of the same name (one on each side of the India-Pakistan border) as well as the Indian state of Haryana.
Alternative spelling - Pujaub
Following the 2nd Sikh War the Punjab was annexed by the British in 1849 and became part of the Bengal Presidency. In 1901 Lord Curzon authorised the division of Punjab. The North West Frontier Province was created with five districts and five agencies. Delhi was separated to become the new capital. The remaining part of Punjab formed a separate province which was subsequently partitioned between India and Pakistan in 1947.
- 1897-1920: Council of the Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab.
- 1921-1936: Punjab Legislative Council
- 1937-1947: Punjab Legislative Assembly
At the turn of the 20th century there were five administrative divisions:
Districts and other areas
To see divisions and districts in Punjab Province at the turn of the 20th century with their headquarter towns see Punjab Districts. Not all districts existed at the same time. Below is an attempt to list all districts that existed at one time or another under British rule.
- Attock District
- Chenab Colony
- Dera Ghazi Khan District
- Gujranwala District
- Jhang District
- Jhelum District
- Lahore District
- Lyallpur District
- Mianwali District
- Montgomery District (now Sahiwal District)
- Multan District
- Muzaffargarh District
- Rawalpindi District
- Shahpur District
- Sheikhupura District
- Sialkot District
These 5 districts were part of Punjab until 1901 when they were separated to form the new province.
Cities and Towns
- Dera Ghazi Khan
- Fort Munro
- Gujrat (also spelt Gujerat)
- Lyallpur (now Faisalabad)
- Montgomery (now Sahiwal)
- Nankana Sahib
- Pind Dadan Khan
- Shahdheri (now known as Taxila)
- "India and the Great War: Colonial Anxieties, Fantasies and Discontent" by Gajendra Singh Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2014. academia.edu.
- "The Punjab under Colonialism: Order and Transformation in British India" by Ian A Talbot Journal of Punjab Studies, 14(1), (2004, Spring), pp 3-10.
- "British Rule in Punjab: 1849-1947" by Farah Gul Baqai Pakistan Journal of History and Culture Vol.XXXI No. 2, Jul-Dec 2010.
- "Sir Evan Jenkins and the 1947 Partition of the Punjab" by Farah Gul Baqai Pakistan Journal of History and Culture Vol.XXVII No.1 Jan-Jun 2006. Jenkins became the Governor of the Punjab on April 8, 1946 and held this position until 15 August 1947.
- State Change in the Punjab: Professional and Personal Experiences of British Civil Servants over India’s independence and beyond by Catherine Eleanor Brown Coombs. Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of PhD, The University of Leeds, School of History September 2011.
- 1859 Sketch map shewing the principal roads through the Punjab. University of Minnesota Libraries, Ames Library of South Asia.
Historical books online
- "Papers Descriptive of the Countries on the North-West Frontier of India:-The Thurr, or Desert; Joodpoor and Jaysulmeer" by Alex. Burnes, an article from Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Volume 4. 1834. With maps. Archive.org
- Origin of the Sikh Power in the Punjab, And Political Life Of Muha-Raja Runjeet Singh, With An Account Of The Present Condition, Religion, Laws And Customs Of The Sikhs Compiled by Henry T. Prinsep, of the Bengal Civil Service, from a Report by Captain William Murray, and from other sources. Printed at Calcutta 1834 Archive.org. Map in four sections. An alternative digital file contains a newspaper article about the author. Archive.org
- Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Panjab: including a Residence in Those Countries from 1826 to 1838 by Charles Masson 1842 Google Books Volume1, Volume 2, Volume 3
- Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, the Panjab, and Kalât, During a Residence in Those Countries: To which is Added an Account of the Insurrection at Kalât, and a Memoir on Eastern Balochistan by Charles Masson 1844 Google Books Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, Volume 4
- Travels in Kashmir and the Panjab - Containing A Particular Account Of The Government And Character Of The Sikhs From The German Of Baron Charles Hügel [or Hugel] With Notes By Major T.B. Jervis, F.R.S. 1845 Archive.org
- Soldier and traveller; memoirs of Alexander Gardner, Colonel of Artillery in the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh [1785-1877] edited by Major Hugh Pearse 1898 Archive.org. "The fantastic adventures of the tartan-turbaned colonel" by William Dalrymple 13 May 2017 The Spectator.
- "The Administration of the Punjab", page 225 The Calcutta Review, Volume 20, July-December 1853 Google Books
- "Life in the Punjab" The Calcutta Review Volume 26, January-June 1856 Google Books
- General Report of the Administration of the Punjab Proper for the years 1849-50 and 1850-51 being the first two years after annexation 1854 Google Books
- Selections from the records of the Government of India (Foreign Department), Issue 6: General Report on the Administration of the Punjab Territories for the years 1851-52 and 1852-53 1854 Google Books
- The Annals of Indian Administration, edited by Meredith Townsend and later George Smith. Selected extracts from the Records of the Indian, Bengal, Madras Bombay, NWP, and Punjab and perhaps other Governments.
- Selections from the Public Correspondence of the Punjab Government Volume IV No 2: I Correspondence regarding Tea Plantations in the Punjab Provinces II Papers regarding the insalubrity of the Peshawur valley 1859 Google Books
- The Punjab Record or Reference Book for Civil Officers Volume 3 1868 Google Books
- The Punjab Record or Reference Book for Civil Officers Volume 4 1869 Contains circulars, with indexes, for 1869. Each section is numbered separately:Financial Circular Orders; Police Department Orders, commencing here; Account Department Orders; Jail Department Orders; Registration Circular Orders; Supreme Government Orders, commencing here; Punjab Government Orders, commencing here; Selections from the records of the Office of the Financial Commissioner, Punjab 1869 Google Books
- The Punjab Record or Reference Book for Civil Officers Archive.org
- Volume VII 1872, Volume IX 1874, Volume XIV 1879, Volume XVII 1882, Part II-Executive Volume XXXVII 1902, Part II-Executive Volume XLI 1906. Further volumes are available at Archive.org
- Commerce by river in the Punjab (1861-62 to 1871-72) or a Survey of the Marine Department of the Government of the Punjab by Faqir Chand Arrora 1930. GIPE Pune Digitised Books
- The Tourist's Guide from Delhi to Kurrachee, describing the various towns ... commerce: railways: river communications: &c: &c: with a map. Lahore [c 1865?]. British Library Digital Collection
- Hand-book of the Economic Products of the Punjab: With a Combined Index and Glossary of Technical Vernacular Words: Volume I Economic Raw Produce by Baden H Powell, H M Bengal Civil Service. 1868 Google Books
- Hand-book of the Manufactures and Arts of the Punjab: Forming Vol. II to the "Hand-book of the Economic Products of the Punjab." by B H Baden Powell, H M Bengal Civil Service 1872 Google Books
- The Punjaub and North-West Frontier of India by An Old Punjaubee. 1878 Archive.org
- Report on the Administration of the Punjab and its Dependencies for 1881-82 1882 Archive.org
- Handbook of the Panjab, Western Rajputana, Kashmir, and Upper Sindh by Edward B. Eastwick, published by John Murray 1883 Archive.org (Volume 4 in a series of Handbooks)
- The Land of the Five Rivers and Sindh: Sketches Historical and Descriptive by David Ross 1883 Archive.org. Note that page 1 (at least) is missing, which may be obtained from this link
- The Grand Trunk Road In The Punjab 1849-1886 Punjab Government Record Office Publications Monograph No.1 by KM Sarkar First published 1926. Archive.org, Digital Library of India Collection.
- Routes In The Bengal And Punjab Commands Revised Edition 1900. [Quarter] Master General Of India. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. Archive.org version.
- Thirty-five years in the Punjab, 1858-1893 by G. R. Elsmie. "The last Haileybury Civilian who worked in that Province" 1908 Archive.org
- Many Punjab District Gazetteers and Punjab States Gazetteers are available as pdf downloads, Digital Library of India, many of which also have mirror editions available on Archive.org. See Gazetteers for details.
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series: Punjab Volume I 1908. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. Archive.org version.
- Imperial Gazetteer of India: Provincial Series Punjab Volume II The Lahore, Rawalpindi and Multan Divisions and Native States 1908 Archive.org
- Panjab Digital Library. It is necessary to register to read more than the first few pages of each book.
- Academy of the Punjab in North America: English language books online.
- European Adventurers Of Northern India 1785 to 1849 by C. Grey first published in 1929 may be read online on the Digital Library of India website, in TIFF format, or as a pdf download. Archive.org version. It is also available to download as a pdf from Pahar-Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. A description of the book says “This is a record of the adventurers, buccaneers, buffoons and entrepeneurs who cut a swathe through the heart of the Raj, before and during the golden age of British-ruled India.” Read more about the book in this link from The Sikh Encyclopedia, now archived. It contains biographical sketches of over one hundred Europeans who came to or served in the Punjab during Sikh times.
- The rifle in Cashmere : a narrative of shooting expeditions in Ladak, Cashmere, Punjaub, etc., with advice on travelling, shooting, and stalking : to which are added notes on army reform and Indian politics by Arthur Brinckman, late of HM’s 94th Regt. 1862 Google Books
- Himalayan Districts Of Kooloo, Lahoul, And Spiti by Capt. A F P Harcourt, Bengal Staff Corps, Assistant Commissioner Punjab. 1871 Archive.org. Lacks the illustrations. Also available as a pdf download, Digital Library of India, but noting the 2006 digitisation date, the illustrations (if any) may be of poor quality. Archive.org mirror version. A 2014 digitised file (1874 edition) is available as a pdf download, with a 1871 edition, both from Pahar-Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. Kulu (Kooloo), Punjab is situated in the hills between Kashmir and Simla.
- Vazeeri Rupi, the silver country of the Vazeers, in Kulu: its beauties, antiquities, and silver mines. Including a trip over the lower Himalayah range and glaciers. With numerous illustrations by J. Calvert. 2nd Edition 1873 Hathi Trust. Also available as a pdf download Pahar-Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. Kulu (Kooloo), Punjab is situated in the hills between Kashmir and Simla.
- The Highlands of India Strategically Considered by Major General D J F Newall R A (Bengal retired) 1882 Archive.org
- The Highlands of India, Volume II, being a Chronicle of Field Sports and Travel in India by Major General D J F Newall R A (Bengal Retired) 1887 Archive.org
- North Punjab Fishing Club Anglers' Handbook by G H Lacey, Bengal Staff Corps 1888 Archive.org
- Lights & Shades of Hill Life in the Afghan and Hindu Highlands of the Punjab, a Contrast by F St J Gore 1895 Archive.org. With photographs by the author. Part I Kulu. Part II Kuram.
- After Five years in India, or, Life and Work in a Punjaub District by Anne C Wilson.1895 Archive.org. Her husband was deputy-commissioner, magistrate and collector in the Sirsa District, part of the Hissar District.
- Letters from India by Lady Wilson (A C Macleod) [Anne Campbell] 1911 Archive.org
- Panjabi Grammar: A Brief Grammar of Panjabi As Spoken in the Wazirabad District by Thomas Grahame Bailey 1904 World Digital Library/Library of Congress. Click on image to read the book online.
- Selections from the Punjab Government Records. Edited by A. Raynor and H. R. Goulding c 1911. Pdf downloads, Digital Library of India, with mirror versions from Archive.org.
- vol. 1. Records Of The Delhi Residency And Agency Vol.1 1911. Archive.org version.
- vol. 2. Records Of The Ludhiana Agency Vol.ii 1911. Archive.org version.
- vol. 3. Political Diaries of the Agent to the Governor-General, North-West Frontier and Resident at Lahore [Sir Henry Lawrence]. From 1st January 1847 to 4th March, 1848. 1909. Pdf download. Archive.org version.
- vol. 4. Journals and Diaries of the Assistants to the Agent, Governor-General, North-West Frontier, and Resident at Lahore, 1846-1849. [By James Abbott, George St. P. Lawrence and others.] 1911. Pdf download. Archive.org version.
- vol. 5. Political Diaries of Lieut. H. B. Edwardes, Assistant to the Resident at Lahore, 1847-1849. 1911. Pdf download. Archive.org version.
- vol. 6. Political Diaries of Lieutenant Reynell G. Taylor, Mr. P. Sandys Melvill [and others] ... 1847-1849. 1915. Pdf download
- vol. 7. Mutiny Records. Correspondence. 2 pt. 1911. Mutiny Records Correspondence In Two Part Part I 1911: Probably Volume 7, Archive.org version. Mutiny Records Correspondence Vol.7 Pt.2 1911
- vol. 8. Mutiny Records. Reports. 2 pt. 1911. Mutiny Records Reports Vol.8; Pt.1 1911, Archive.org version; Mutiny Records Reports Vol.8; Pt.2, Archive.org version.
- vol. 9. Selections from Note-Books kept by Captain G. Birch, Assistant to Agent to the Governor-General, Karnal Agency, 1818-1821.1921. Pdf download. Archive.org version.
- A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of Punjab and North-West Frontier Province by H A Rose 1911-1919. Volumes 1 and 3 pdf downloads Pahar-Mountains of Central Asia Digital Dataset. Volume 2 Archive.org.
- Turmoil and Tragedy in India, 1914 and After by Lieut.-General Sir George MacMunn 1935 is available as a pdf download Digital Library of India. Archive.org version. It is catalogued as Turmoil The Tragedy In India 1914.
- The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province and Kashmir by Sir James Douie 1916 Archive.org. A volume in the series Provincial Geographies of India.
- The Sikhs of the Punjab by R E Parry late Indian Army Reserve of Officers; sometime Acting Captain and adjutant 2/15th Ludhiana Sikhs. Sometime attached 35th Sikhs.  Archive.org. Includes Chapter VI Recruiting Methods page 104.
- "Seven Years of War and the Salt Range" by ‘Punjab Captain’ page 454 Blackwood’s Magazine, no 210 July-Dec 1921. Archive.org. Many men in the Punjab were still absent in the Army overseas.
- The Punjab And The War compiled by M S Leigh ICS 1922 Panjab Digital Library. This book is also available as a pdf download Digital Library of India. Archive.org version.
- Punjab disturbances, April 1919; compiled from the Civil and military gazette 1919 Archive.org
- Army. Disturbances in the Punjab. Statement by Brig.-General R E H Dyer Presented to Parliament HMSO 1920. HathiTrust Digital Library
- Report: Disorders Inquiry Committee 1919-1920 Archive.org. Also published 1920 by HMSO under the title East India (disturbances in the Punjab, etc.) : report of the committee appointed by the Government of India to investigate the disturbances in the Punjab
- Evidence taken before the Disorders Inquiry Committee: Volume V: Gujranwala, Gujrat, Lyallpur and Punjab Provincial HathiTrust Digital Library. Vol.1 - Delhi; Vol.2 - Bombay Presidency; Vol.3 - Amritsar; Vol.4 - Lahore and Kasur HathiTrust Digital Library accessible by those in regions such as North America. Volumes 6 and 7 (confidential, 1920 British Library IOR/V/26/262/8-9) were first unrestrictedly published in 1975.
- Kapurthala State Its Past And Present 1921. Pdf download, Digital Library of India. Archive.org version.
- History Of The Panjab Hill States by J Hutchison (John) and S E J P Vogel (Jean Philippe) 1933. Volume I, Volume II Archive.org.
- Industry and Industrial Arts series of Monographs
- Monograph On The Gold And Silver Work Of The Punjab by E D Maclagan 1890 Archive.org, Digital Library of India Collection.
- Monograph On The Pottery And Glass Industries Of The Punjab 1890-1891 1892 Archive.org, Digital Library of India Collection.
- Monograph On Ivory Carving In The Punjab 1900 1900 Archive.org, Digital Library of India Collection.
- Monograph on Stone-carving and In-laying in the Punjab, 1904-05 1906. Pdf download, Digital Repository of GIPE Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics [Pune].