Royal Artillery

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  • 1716 two companies of field artillery raised at Woolwich
  • 1720 first called Royal Artillery
  • 1748 Presidential Artilleries of Bengal, Madras and Bombay formed
  • 1793 Royal Horse Artillery (RHA) raised to provide fire support for the cavalry
  • 1862 absorbed artillery of the British East India Company (21 horse batteries & 48 field batteries) bringing its strength to 29 horse batteries, 73 field batteries and 88 heavy batteries
  • 1899 divided into Royal Horse Artillery, Royal Field Artillery and Royal Garrison Artillery
  • 1924 amalgamated again into one regiment Royal Artillery
  • Today Royal Regiment of Artillery comprised of Royal Horse Artillery (King's Troop & 3 regiments) and Royal Artillery (18 regiments)

Service in India

The first company of the Royal Artillery to serve in India sailed in November 1747. During the 1800s the service in the East Indies was mainly in Ceylon, until the Indian Mutiny in 1857. In 1859, the companies of the Royal Artillery in India were formed into the 11th, 13th and 14th Brigades.[1]

See also Stations of the Royal Artillery in India

Absorbing the Company artillery regiments

In December 1861, General Orders were issued concerning the amalgamation of the Bengal, Madras and Bombay Artillery with the Royal Artillery.

“In accordance with the instructions of her Majesty's Government, the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay Regiments of Artillery will be formed into the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th Royal Horse Brigades, and the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, and 25th brigades of Royal Artillery.

The 2nd Royal Horse Brigade will be formed of seven troops of Bengal Horse Artillery, the 3rd brigade of the four troops of Madras Horse Artillery, the 4th brigade of the four troops of Bombay Horse Artillery, and the 5th brigade of six troops of Bengal Horse Artillery.

The brigades of Royal Artillery will be formed:—16th of 5 companies of Bengal Artillery ; 17th of 6 companies of Madras Artillery; 18th of 6 companies of Bombay Artillery ; 19th of 5 companies of Bengal Artillery; 20th of 5 companies of Madras Artillery ; 21st of six companies of Bombay Artillery ; 22nd of 5 companies of Bombay Artillery; 23rd of 5 companies of Madras Artillery ; 24th of 5 companies of Bengal Artillery; 25th of 4 companies of Bengal Artillery".[2]

1861 onwards

History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery Duncan, vol 2, (1873) lists the batteries in existence in 1872. The names of the Horse Artillery Brigades have changed since 1861, and the 24th and 25th Brigades are no longer in existence.

For information for the period 1863-1911, refer Stations of Royal Artillery in India

For details of Royal Artillery Batteries which have an honour title or history involving India, (current at October 2014) , refer Royal Artillery Batteries

First World War

Regular Army Brigades

Batteries and Brigades of the Royal Field Artillery from "The Long, Long Trail The British Army in the Great War", which indicates there were some Regular Army Brigades in India throughout the War , examples being

Comprising only number 77 Battery and based at Jhansi, this brigade came under command of the 7th (Meerut) Division of the Indian Army. It remained in India throughout the war, leaving the Division when it went to France. In 1915-6 it was under the 1st (Peshawar) Division.
Comprising numbers 4, 38 and 78 Batteries RFA plus 68 and 84 Companies RGA and 104 Battery RGA and based at Rawalpindi, this brigade came under command of the 2nd (Rawalpindi) Division of the Indian Army. It remained in India throughout the war.
  • 16 Brigade (regular, XVI) A unit of Britain's pre-war regular army and comprising 89, 90 and 91 Batteries, this brigade came under command of the 1st (Peshawar) Division of the Indian Army and was based at Nowshera. It remained in India throughout the war, only leaving Nowshera for Rawalpindi in November 1918.

Territorial Force troops

See British Army Territorial Force troops arriving in 1914 for some of the Royal Field Artillery Batteries which arrived at the end of 1914.

In 1916 and 1917 there was a renaming and renumbering of Artillery Brigades and Batteries. As an example, in 1916, the IV Wessex Brigade was renamed, becoming the 218th (IV Wessex) Brigade, RFA. In 1917, the component batteries were numbered, with the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Devonshire Batteries becoming 1094th, 1095th, and 1096th Batteries. [3]

Royal Artillery Mountain Batteries

Also known as the Royal Garrison Artillery (Mountain Division). There were eight British Army batteries of mountain artillery in India, numbered 1 to 9, of which one was in Egypt, where the gunners were British, in comparison to the Indian mountain artillery where the gunners were Indian. The designation changed to Pack Battery in 1920 and to Light Battery in 1927.[4] In 1937 these Batteries ceased to exist in their previous form, when they were transformed into Indian mountain artillery, when the British gunners were sent to other artillery units, and were replaced by Indian gunners.[5] In August 1939 the existing 6 regular Indian Mountain Regiments were transferred from RA to the Indian Army, (units of the Indian Regiment of Artillery being authorised at the beginning of 1935). [6]

See External links, below for "17 Pack Battery RGA in India". Albert Bakewell was later stationed in India with Royal Artillery 17th Light Battery, between 1929 and 1936, a lot of the time in the tribal territories.[7]

A regimental account for the 6th Pack Battery is A Norfolkman in the Raj : the Royal Artillery 1920-1933 by Alan W. Roper, published 2010. Available at the British Library UIN: BLL01015383558 .

Recommended reading

  • Tales of the Mountain Gunners: an Anthology compiled by those who served with them and edited by C. H. T. MacFetridge and J. P. Warren. Edinburgh : Blackwood, 1973. Second edition, with amendments 1974, which may be the preferred edition.
An anthology of tales and short stories about one of the most unusual and colourful units in the history of the British Empire: the Mountain Artillery. Its reputation for action attracted a collection of adventurous, able and eccentric officers; usually with a combination of all three qualities. See Military reading list - Army - Other - List of books recommended by Peter Moore. Another reader said "I cannot recommend too highly Tales of the Mountain Gunners. It is simply enthralling, moving, funny, inspiring and wonderful. It would be in my top 10 books never to part with.[8]
Chapters include: in the days work, good fighting, the soldier, the mule, the gun, some characters and more.[9]
There is a brief extract in "'Tales from the bushy-topped tree' A Brief Survey of Military Sketching", see External links below.
  • Pick Up Your Parrots and Monkeys: The Life of a Boy Soldier in India by William Pennington. First published by Cassell UK 2003, paperback edition Phoenix, an imprint of Orion Books, London 2004 ISBN-10: 0753817837 ISBN-13: 978-0753817834
This very interesting and ‘easy to read’ autobiography covers the Army career of Temporary Captain Joseph William Pennington, Royal Artillery, 151372, from his training in 1934 as a Boy Trumpeter at age 14 in England, his posting to India at age 15 where he remained until 1939, to his World War 2 experiences in Burma where he was awarded the Military Cross as a Forward Observation Officer. For more details, see History reading list.
Now available on online, see Historical books online below.

See also


FIBIS resources

  • Royal Artillery in India Baptisms and marriages taken from the original record WO69/575 – 21 Brigade Royal Artillery.
  • Royal Regiment of Artillery 1747-1749 - 135 officers and soldiers of the RA who sailed for India to fight with Admiral Boscawen
  • Royal Artillery Muster Rolls 1748 pay list related to above source
  • K Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, Memorial at Bandariabagh (photo)
  • "Life in a British Cantonment in India: Nasirabad, 1929-1930" by John Sworder FIBIS Journal Number 23 (Spring 2010) pages 40-48. For details of how to access this article, see FIBIS Journals.
  • "The Mysterious Murder at Agra" by Rosemary Reardon FIBIS Journal Number 28 (Autumn 2012) pages 3-14. Charles Low a Corporal in O Battery, 3 Brigade stationed at Agra was murdered in October 1882. His wife and another Corporal were charged with the murder but acquitted. For details of how to access this article, see FIBIS Journals.
  • "Trumpeter Inwood, an Anglo-Indian hero of the Kut Garrison" by Rosemary Reardon FIBIS Journal Number 32 (Autumn 2014) pages 18-29. For details of how to access this article, see FIBIS Journals.

The National Archives

The most accessible soldiers’ records, including for soldiers of the Royal Artillery, are the WO 97 series Royal Hospital Chelsea pension records, many of which are available online.

Muster rolls (effectively a pay list register of soldiers in a company) can provide excellent information, however it must be noted that there are almost no muster rolls for the Royal Artillery in India, except a few in very early years.[10] However, checking the rolls for the period before and after an artilleryman is in India can be very useful. The National Archives has an online guide covering British Army muster rolls and pay lists. Be sure to know the brigade and battery of your man before you attempt to find the muster roll and be aware that name changes did occur. The books known as Law's Tables can be useful for sorting out the correct titles.

There was previously a guide booklet produced by Firepower, The Royal Artillery Museum called "Is There A Gunner In Your Family Tree?", and there is a online guide available on Facebook, refer below.

The main record series, with catalogue entries, are:

N.B. The Friends of the National Archives have transcribed details from the WO 69 Registers of Marriages and Baptisms described above. Some of these relate to men who were posted to India. Enter surname and reference "WO69" in the Discovery Search Box
The records for WO 69/1-177, but excluding WO 69/63-73, together with WO 69/583-597 "Description books: Registers of deceased soldiers, with indexes" are available on LDS digitised microfilm, (107 reels) with this catalogue entry (See FamilySearch Centres for viewing access).

  • First World War
    • WO 95 War Diaries, see First World War - The National Archives
      • The TNA pay downloads available include the very informative "List of Royal Artillery, Army Service Corps, Machine Gun Corps and Medical Units" WO 95/5494. [11]

Online Resources

WO 116/125 1 November 1833-08 February 1837 to WO 116/165 3 January 1893 to 26 December 1893
These are stated to be large pdf files, which need a broadband internet connection
  • The findmypast website currently (2017/3) includes the following databases, all located in the category "Armed forces & conflict"
    • Sub-category "Regimental & service records"
      • Royal Artillery Attestations 1883-1942. In practical terms this database consists men who were in the Royal Artillery post WW1 and is a valuable database as it may also include information about prior Army service. For more details about this class of records, see British Army - Attestation, or Enlistment books (Army Book 358) from 1920.
      • Royal Artillery Honours & Awards. This database is a subset of “Britain, Campaign, Gallantry & Long Service Medals & Awards” and is described as Royal Artillery Honours & Awards, 1886-2013 – Transcripts only
      • Royal Artillery Officer Deaths 1850-2011
    • Sub-category "Service Records"
      • "Royal Artillery Officers 1716-1899". These records are from the fourth edition of the List of Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The year 1716 to the year 1899, collected by General W. H. Askwith, Colonel-Commandant Royal Artillery and published in 1900. Refer online books below.
      • "British Army, Royal Artillery, 80th Field Regiment, WW2". Transcripts from various records.
    • Sub-category "First World War" - "Royal Artillery War Commemoration Book, 1914-1918" . This book was published in 1920 and consists of an alphabetical list of 3,505 Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery who died during the First World War
    • Sub-category "Second World War" - "Royal Artillery Other Ranks: Casualty Cards 1939-1947". From original cards held at the Royal Artillery Museum, whose Archive is now at Larkhill, Wiltshire.
Searching is free but charges apply for examination of the record.

Church Records

For Overseas Army records of baptisms, marriages and burials, see Chaplains Returns

Firepower, The Royal Artillery Museum, now closed

Firepower Museum at Woolwich closed on 8 July 2016.

It had a Library and Archive with extensive holdings including battery records. A research service was available. Firepower produced a guide booklet for family history researchers called "Is There A Gunner In Your Family Tree?" The sixteen page guide outlined how the Museum's extensive archives could help researchers. It also detailed the other main UK sources and archives to explore when researching army service.

A new Royal Artillery Museum is planned.

Part of Library and Archive now at Larkhill

Initially some 10% of the RA Museum’s Library and Archive was settled in temporary accommodation at Larkhill Army Base, about 10 miles (16 km) north of Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. Booking up to a month in advance is advised because the archive is now on an Army base and passes for cars and people need to be generated. There will be a daily access fee, and a daily fee for photography.[12]

Further portions of the Archive became available from April 2018. (Details[13]).

The Royal Artillery Museum website (see External links below) currently (March 2020) advises the archive has been transferred "to a new storage facility near Larkhill, and most records are now available for research purposes".

Previously it was advised access was now possible on Tuesdays and Thursdays and stated "We're happy to answer brief enquiries, and we've started a paid service for more detailed historical research", and that the email for the enquiry service was [email protected] This information does not currently appear on the website (March 2020) but there is an online enquiry form on the website (located under Archive/Overview)

Information may also be found on the Facebook pages Royal Artillery Museum - The Collection, and Royal Artillery Museum Archive, the latter has information to 26 January 2021.[14]

Royal Artillery Museum Archive published on Facebook in June 2018, a three part guide "Gunner Family History".[15]

British Library

For items in the India Office Records refer India Office military records at the British Library.

Published histories in the catalogue include [also see Historical books online, below]:

  • The History of the Royal Artillery : from the Indian Mutiny to the Great War by Sir Charles Callwell and Sir John Headlam (1931, 1940). Volume 1, 1860-1899, Volume 2, 1899-1914, Volume 3, Campaigns 1860-1914. Vol. 3 has separate case of maps. UIN: BLL01006810121. Also available on the Ancestry owned pay website fold3, refer Historical books online, below.
  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery : Western Front 1914-18 by Sir Martin Farndale (1986). UIN: BLL01008145795
  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery : the Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914-18 by Sir Martin Farndale (1988). UIN: BLL01008145796
  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery : Between the Wars, 1919-39 edited by BP Hughes (1992) (Nb: the catalogue entry does not use the subtitle) UIN: BLL01010039429
  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: Anti-aircraft artillery, 1914-55 by N.W. Routledge (c 1994). UIN: BLL01012703891
  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The years of defeat Europe and North Africa, 1939-41 by Sir Martin Farndale 1996. UIN: BLL01012703884
  • History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. The Far East Theatre, 1941-1946 by Sir Martin Farndale (2000). UIN: BLL01012703977; revised edition The Far East Theatre, 1939-1946, Farndale (2002). The 2002 edition is available online, refer below.
  • Honour Titles of the Royal Artillery by B P Hughes. [nd], but from elsewhere, first published 1975, 2nd edition 1988. UIN: BLL01008449724, UIN: BLL01011497298
  • A Norfolkman in the Raj : the Royal Artillery 1920-1933 by Alan W. Roper 2010. About the 6th Pack Battery, Mountain Artillery. UIN: BLL01015383558
  • Indian Army
History of the Regiment of Artillery : Indian Army edited by D. K. Palit. 1971 Indian edition, 1972 UK edition. UIN: BLL01001796726 and UIN: BLL01012130331

Other books in the catalogue:

  • Battery Records of the Royal Artillery compiled by M. E. S. Laws. Volume 1, 1716-1859 and Volume 2, 1859-1877 published in 1952 and 1970 . Also known as ‘Laws Tables’.
  • Minutes of Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution. Volume 1 (1858) -Volume 32, no. 3 (June 1905). Volume 12 is missing. The name then changed to
  • The Journal of the Royal Artillery, Vol 32, no. 4 (July 1905). This was published monthly, 1905-July 1924; quarterly Oct 1924-1958; 3 times a year, 1959-1961; half-yearly, 1962-.
  • General Report of the Practice in the Royal Artillery, Poona Circle (Annual Report on Royal Artillery Practice, Bombay Command) for the season of 1894-95 (1896-97-1899-1900)

Royal Artillery Historical Society

The Society normally meets for a lecture three times a year and arranges Summer visits and Battlefield Tours. [16]

Refer External links below for some papers presented to the Society, available online.

Regimental journals

The Gunner has been published monthly since 1919. Its aims include providing a record of regimental history, social affairs, sporting activities, equipment, dress etc

The Royal Artillery Journal is published twice annually, and offers a more in-depth, scientific look at continuing operations and lessons that can be learned from previous campaigns, as well as features on memorable moments and characters from the Gunners' 300 year history. [17] Originally published from 1858 as Minutes of Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution, the name was changed in 1905. Both series of journals are available at the British Library.

Boy Trumpeters in the Royal Artillery

The Regulations for Recruiting for the Regular Army published in 1903 laid out the criteria under which boys aged between fourteen and seventeen years could be recruited. In prior years the recruitment was from even earlier ages. Many such Boys in the Royal Artillery trained as Trumpeters.

A regimental history is Trumpeters- The Story of the Royal Artillery's Boy Trumpeters by Brian Cloughley 2008. Boy trumpeters, known as 'badgies', were a fixture of the British Army for centuries, right up until the 1940s. The majority of trumpeters went to or stayed in India. ‘Badgie’ is derived from the Hindi baju, meaning ‘music’. Badgie wallahs were the music men and timekeepers in days when there were no other means of notifying large numbers of soldiers that they were required for various duties.[18]

An individual account is found in Pick Up Your Parrots and Monkeys: The Life of a Boy Soldier in India by William Pennington 2003, who commenced his training in 1934 as a Boy Trumpeter at age 14 in England, and was posted to India at age 15. This book is available on online, see Historical books online below.

Anglo Indians in the Royal Artillery

Enlistment in the British Army, and therefore the Royal Artillery, was generally restricted to those with European parents, but was possible for Eurasian men of fair complexion―those whose looks allowed them to ‘pass’ as white.[19] There is one reference to an Anglo Indian Boy Trumpeter in the Royal Horse Artillery c 1936[20]

Indians in the Royal Artillery

Prior to 1924, there were Indian soldiers serving in the Royal Artillery as drivers, and native gunners in ammunition columns serving as wagon-men.[21] During the First World War, there are references to Lascars, see Gun Lascar. There is one reference[22] to a WW1 medal for an Indian Gunner in a British Mountain Battery, RGA. In 1924, Indian Mountain/Pack Batteries became Batteries in the Royal Artillery, which was the situation until 1939 when the Indian Mountain Batteries were transferred from the Royal Artillery to the Indian Regiment of Artillery.
C 1927 "Indians are employed as drivers and artificers in the Royal Horse and Field Artillery and in medium batteries, and as drivers, gunners and artificers in the Pack Artillery. In the Frontier Garrison Artillery they are employed as gunners and artificers and in the Indian Coast Artillery as gunners only".[23]

Regimental flash

The flash, also known as a pagri (puggaree) badge, or Foreign Service Helmet badge, was generally affixed to the pagri on the sun helmet. The Royal Horse Artillery had a square red/blue flash divided diagonally (red to the front) and with a grenade badge affixed, the Royal Field Artillery had a rectangular flash of equal parts red/blue. The Royal Garrison Artillery had the same colours but in a diamond shape during the 2nd Boer War. Red always to the front.[24]

It is difficult to identify Foreign Service (Wolseley Pattern) helmet flashes because the type of black & white film used at that time distorted coloration. [25]

External links

  • Leigh and District History: Indian Mutiny 1857-1858, now an archived webpage. Personal accounts from soldiers in India, sent to family in the Leigh District, Greater Manchester, England. The account by James Ramsdale, stated to be of the "14th Battalion Royal Infantry", appears to be a transcription error - it is considered he was actually in No. 3 Coy/14th Bn. Royal Artillery.[26]
  • Photograph: Royal Artillery Officer in India c 1860
  • Photographs from Soldiers of the Queen: The Jewel in the Crown
  • Details[27] of the funeral of Dudley Maryon Wilson, Lieutenant and Local Captain, Royal Artillery who died at Rawal Pindi November 1871.
  • "James Joyce –RA, AOD & RAOC" James Joyce was enlisted at Churat, Bengal 22nd Oct 1875 aged 14 years and 6 months old by his Armourer Sergeant father. His army career extended to 1918 in East Africa. Asplin Military History Resources, now archived.
  • Article: "The amazing story of Bobbie, the bravest dog of war, as told in a British soldier's diary of a bloody battle in Afghanistan 130 years ago" by Geoffrey Wansell 19 November 2009 Describes letters written by Captain John Slade of the Royal Horse Artillery about the Battle of Maiwand in 1880, an action in the 2nd Afghan War
  • Master Gunner, later Major & Quarter Master, John O'Brien, Royal Artillery His first active service was as an underage Trumpeter in the 2nd Afghan War 1878-1880, attached to the 6th Battery, 8th Brigade, Royal Artillery. He saw active service in India to 1888., now archived.
  • "Forfeiting a Victoria Cross" 2 January 2018 British Library Untold Lives blog. Edward James Collis was serving as a Gunner with the Royal Horse Artillery during the Second Afghan War when an act of bravery gained him the country's highest military honour, the Victoria Cross. He subsequently forfeited the medal due to dishonourable behaviour (the committing of bigamy).
  • Anzac Hero, Police Legend: An Adventure like no other by Lawrence J Harvey. The Story of William Harvey MC pdf, html version William Harvey was initially with the 1st Essexs in India, c 1906 then with the Royal Horse Artillery on the North West Frontier. C 1911 he and an Australian soldier friend, deserted and went to Australia. Note, the Gallipoli extracts within by Digger Craven are considered to be a fictional account, see Gallipoli.
  • 2nd Kent Battery
  • Voyage to India: Memoirs of the 1st/3rd Kent Battery 1914 Frank William Critchley was 22 years old and a sergeant in the 1st/3rd Kent Battery, Royal Artillery. He travelled to India on the troopship Grantully Castle which departed Southampton 29 Oct 1914 and arrived Bombay 2 December 1914. The Battery then travelled to Jubbulpore.
  • Photographs by Francis William Downs “A Bty., 218th Bde., R.F.A. Calcutta c 1916 (Picasa Web Albums), now archived.
  • Charles George Thomas Barnes was in the 1/2nd Sussex, Royal Field Artillery (Territorial Force) in Mhow, Central India from 1915-1917, when the Brigade was sent to Mesopotamia where it joined the 17th (Indian) Division. Two photographs taken in Mhow may be seen here, and service details may be seen here Barnes Family History website.
  • Driver Percy Walter Long, 67528, 63rd Battery, R.F.A was captured at the fall of Kut, in Mesopotamia, in 1916. For his account, see Prisoners of the Turks (First World War) - Historical books online.
  • The 5th Sussex (Reserve) Battery was formed on the South Coast and spent time in England until October 1917 when it joined the Indian Division in Mesopotamia and subsequently took part in the Afghanistan War of 1919. Includes photographs from the collection of Edward Midmore who was based at Karachi, Quetta and Charriam [probably incorrectly transcribed and should be Chaman] in India, and was associated with the Capture of Spin Boldak in Afgahnistan in 1919, although he was not directly involved in the fighting.
  • 17 Pack Battery RGA in India Contains photographs from an album belonging to Harry Lamming, Battery Sergeant-Major of the 17th Pack Battery RGA. The 17th Pack Battery served in India from 1920 to 1927, and was posted to various stations including Razmak in North Waziristan.
  • Photograph: A group of off-duty Artillerymen from No. 3 Bty, 3rd Bde relaxing in fatigues and solar "topees" by Lance Sergeant Thomas Boddington, Quetta, Baluchistan, about 1926. Family website, now archived.
  • "The Diary and Journal of General Sir John Wilton" (born 1910) He was an officer in India and Burma from December 1931, initially with the 69 Fd Bty Royal Artillery (page 3) and left in May 1939 (page 12)
  • Listen to the 1995 interview with Ronald William Swann British NCO with 238 Bty, 115th Field Regt, Royal Artillery in GB, France and Belgium and India 1939-1942; served with 160th Jungle Field Regt, Royal Artillery in Bengal, India, 1943; officer served with artillery unit during Second Chindit Expedition in Burma, 1944 Imperial War Museums
  • 42 Regiment Royal Artillery: History 1939 to 1947 16 Field Regiment RA includes from 15 April 1942 sailing for India and from April 1944 front line service at Kohima (northeast India) and then Burma.
  • The father of John Cooper A Searchlight Unit was formed from 41st Battalion 5th North Staffs (Originally TA Volunteers). They then were drafted to 126 Light Anti Aircraft Regiment which supposedly never left the UK and then to the 60 Field Artillery Regiment. They were in fact transported out to India under the Command of General Wingate and Brigadier Mike Calvert as part of the Chindits Special Forces 77th Brigade. (WW2)
  • Obituary: Ron Burton 09 October 2013 The Telegraph. He was Sergeant, 125 Anti-Tank Regiment Royal Artillery (125 ATR), taken prisoner after the fall of Singapore.
  • Razmak North West Frontier. Circa 1946-47. Alternative views, some photographs may be better. 1, 2, 3, 4. Victor Morgan was a member of 56 Heavy Regiment at Razmak and was subsequently with 123 Field Regt.
  • Account by Nigel Buxton who was in the Royal Artillery during WW2 who spent six months from April 1946 as an assistant adjutant in India during the last days of the Raj, then was ADC to the general commanding Special Force 401 in Iraq, before demobilisation in 1947.[28]
  • Built Heritage Conservation Framework for Dover Western Heights by Liv Gibbs, February 2012. Dover Western Heights is a series of forts at Dover, England. Includes a detailed chronology with information about Quarters for all ranks, facilities provided, military features etc, an indication of military life in a fort (and probably more generally applicable to Army life elsewhere.)

Historical books online

List of Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery from ... 1716 to the present date [1869] 1869. Contains some short bibliographies from page 165.
List of Officers of the Royal Regiment of Artillery from the year 1716 to the year 1899 collected by General W H Askwith Fourth edition 1900. HathiTrust Digital Library version with rotatable pages.
Standing Orders of the Royal Regiment of Artillery 1876
Modern Artillery in the Field: a description of the Artillery of the Field Army, and the Principles and Methods of its Employment by Colonel H. A. Bethell RFA (Retired) 1911 Hathi Trust Digital Library.
The Coast Artillery Journal Multiple volumes from 1922 to 1949.
  • Volumes, from 1911, of The Field Artillery Journal published by The United States Field Artillery Association, are available on the webpage Fires Bulletin Archive published by the US Army Field Artillery. Fort Sill, Oklahoma USA.
Field Artillery Journal Collection of digitised microfilm from 1911 at


  1. "The Royal Artillery in the East Indies" provides more details
  2. "The New Artillery Amalgamation", pages 606-607 (December 1861) from Colburn’s United Service Magazine, Volume 97, 1861 Part 3 Google Books
  3. Hoplophile. 218th RFA in India, Great War Forum, 30 June 2008 . Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  4. Clifton, Ron. Royal Artillery in India, Pack Battery query Great War Forum 28 January 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2019. Mentions the book A Norfolkman in the Raj : the Royal Artillery 1920-1933 by Alan W. Roper.
  5. Seven Cantonments by Major S E G Ponder, see Historical books online, above.
  6. Field Artillery Regiments of the Indian Artillery in World War 2 from "British Artillery In World War 2"
  7. No longer available article "Son tells us of gunner's service in 1930s India" by Dan Shaw.
  8. Muerrisch. Royal Artillery in India, Pack Battery query Great War Forum 28 January 2017. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  9. The no longer available link Books on Artillery and Fortifications from DP&G Publications.
  10. WO 10 TNA Catalogue description
  11. WO 95/5494 List of Royal Artillery, Army Service Corps, Machine Gun Corps and Medical Units with the Division, Corps or Army they fought with. The National Archives.
  12. MaxD et al. Royal Artillery Museum update mid March 2017 Great War Forum 16 March 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  13. Facebook: Royal Artillery Museum Archive 8 April 2018.
  14. Royal Artillery Museum - The Collection @TheRAMCollection, and Royal Artillery Museum Archive @RoyalArtilleryArchive. The latter has information as a separate page to 26 January 2021, and will be eventually closed (but is still in existence at 5 July 2022). Facebook
  15. Gunner Family History – Part 1 – Service Records 14 June 2018; Gunner Family History – Part 2 – Other Military Records 19 June 2018; Gunner Family History – Part 3 – Civilian Sources 28th June 2018. Royal Artillery Museum Archive on Facebook. These direct links are only available if you are a Facebook member. Otherwise scroll down the posts to 14 June 2018 on Royal Artillery Museum Archive which contains information to 26 January 2021, and will be eventually closed.
  16. The Royal Artillery: Life and Heritage. Scroll down to Royal Artillery Historical Society (RAHS). Archived British Army website, with details current at 14 July 2017.
  17. Royal Artillery: Life and Heritage. Scroll down to The Gunner Magazine and The Royal Artillery Journal. Archived British Army website with details current at 14 July 2017. Also Gunner Magazine Archived British Army website which contains some sample editions of The Gunner c 2013.
  18. Trumpeters- The Story of the Royal Artillery's Boy Trumpeters
  19. Loyalty, Parity, and Social Control-The Competing Visions on the Creation of an ‘Eurasian’ Military Regiment in late British India by Satoshi Mizutani The International Journal of Anglo-Indian Studies Volume 10, No. 1, 2010
  20. Pages 122-123, Pick up your Parrots and Monkeys: The Life of a Boy Soldier in India by William Pennington 2003
  21. Page 182 The Armies of India described by Major G F MacMunn (Painted by Major Lovett) 1911
  22. Trevelyan Mountain Batteries, 1914 and 1915 Great War Forum 13 July 2004 et al. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  23. Armaments Year-Book : General and Statistical Information Volume: 4th (1928) Chapter: India page 227.
  24. Stuart_Bates. The no longer available link Foreign Service Helmet Markings 84th Batt RA 1901 Victorian Wars Forum 14 May 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  25. FROGSMILE. Help needed ID-ing unit flash on pith helmet Great War Forum 30 May 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  26. Snook, Mike. How did new troops get to Roorkee in 1858? Victorian Wars Forum 3 August 2017, now an archived website. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  27. BingandNelsonFan. The no longer available link A Funeral in India (1872) Victorian Wars Forum 11 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019. Originally from Broad Arrow 06 Jan 1872, page 28, available online on findmypast, and the British Newspaper Archive.
  28. The Fading Margin by Nigel Buxton. The following cover his time in India and Iraq: Serial 15, Serial 16, Serial 17, Serial 18 February and March 2013, Buxton's blog, archived. The account commences November 2012, navigate via side bar.
  29. History of the Royal Artillery from The Indian Mutiny to The Great War: Volume I 1860-1899, Volume II 1899-1914 and Volume III Campaigns 1860-1914 Naval & Military Press reprint editions.
  30. Sketch of the History of ‘F’ Battery Royal Horse Artillery by Major-General F. W. Stubbs and Major A. S. Tyndale-Biscoe, R.H.A. c 1905 Naval & Military Press reprint edition.
  31. History of “J” Battery, Royal Horse Artillery (Formerly A Troop, Madras Horse Artillery) Naval & Military Press reprint edition.